US Pharm. 2014;39(5):7.
Data on key health indicators in children, such as birthweight,
breastfeeding, television viewing, smoking, and anemia, were collected
by the 2010 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System.
Low Birthweight: Although the infant mortality
rate fell from 26 to seven per 1,000 live births between 1996 and 1999,
low-birthweight (LBW) infants (<2,500 g) were 40 times more likely
than normal-birthweight infants to die during the first 4 weeks of life.
The overall prevalence of LBW births, which remained stable at 9% from
2001 through 2010, was higher in black infants (13.2%) than in white
(8.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (8.9%), American Indian (8.2%), and
Hispanic (7.1%) infants.
Breastfeeding: Between 2001 and 2010, there was a
13.1% increase in breastfeeding initiation, with prevalence across all
ethnic groups. In 2010, 10.7% of infants were exclusively breastfed for
≥3 months. About 63% of infants were ever breastfed, and 25.1% were
breastfed for ≥6 months. The proportion of infants breastfed for ≥6
months increased from 21.5% (2001) to 25.1% (2010). The increase
occurred across all ethnic groups, with Hispanic infants at 35.1%
(highest) and black infants at 18% (lowest).
Television Viewing: In 2010, 79.2% of children aged 2
to 4 years viewed ≤2 hours of television daily. The proportion of
children meeting this American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation was
lowest among black (69.9%) and American Indian or Alaska Native children
(77.6%) and highest among white children (85.1%).
Household Smoking: In 2010, 9.4% of children were
exposed to household smoke. Exposure was highest in white (17%) and
black children (9.5%) and lowest in Asian/Pacific Islander children
(4.2%). Exposure in children aged <1 year was lower (8.5%) than in
those aged 0 to 4 years (9.4%). Women who smoked during the first and
second trimesters had a 70% increased risk of delivering an LBW infant,
versus a 30% increased risk in women who smoked during the first
Anemia: Despite increased administration of iron to
infants over the last 50 years, 14.6% of children were anemic, with the
highest prevalence in those aged 6 to 23 months (18.1%) and those aged
12 to 17 months (18.2%). The lowest prevalence was in children aged 3 to
4 years (10.6%). The overall prevalence of anemia increased slightly,
from 13.4% in 2001 to 14.6% in 2010. During this period, the overall
prevalence of anemia dropped to 13% in 2002, but increased subsequently.
In 2010, the highest prevalence was in black children (22.5%), and the
lowest prevalence was in white children (11.2%). From 2001 through 2010,
the largest increase was in black children (2.9%). The prevalence
declined slightly among Asian/Pacific Islander children.
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