US Pharm. 2014;39(5):13-14.
Taking a Child’s Temperature
Several methods for taking a child’s temperature quickly, accurately,
and safely are available. Devices used to measure body temperature in
children include the digital thermometer (for rectal, oral, or underarm
readings), the digital ear thermometer (tympanic membrane thermometer),
the digital pacifier thermometer, and the forehead (temporal artery)
Mercury thermometers are no longer considered safe because the glass
can break and release the liquid mercury, which is highly toxic. Digital
thermometers, which are safe and measure body temperature in seconds,
should be used instead of mercury thermometers.
Never Leave a Child Alone While Taking Temperature
Taking a child’s temperature with a digital device is easy and quick,
but the patient should never be left alone while the thermometer is in
place. When a child has a fever, healthcare professionals recommend
recording the time and temperature readings, along with any medication
given to lower the fever. The following are descriptions of the
different methods used to measure body temperature in children.
Rectal, Oral, and Axillary Methods
Digital “instant-read” thermometers may be used for oral, rectal, or
axillary (underarm) temperature measurement. A digital thermometer used
rectally (in the child’s bottom) should be kept separate from digital
thermometers used for oral measurement, and it should be clearly labeled
to ensure that it is not accidentally placed in the child’s mouth.
Before and after each use, the thermometer should be cleaned with
rubbing alcohol or washed with soap and lukewarm water.
The most accurate temperature measurement is taken via the rectal
route, which is especially recommended for infants aged 3 months and
younger; this method also provides the best readings for children aged
up to 2 years. The tip of the thermometer should be coated with a small
amount of petroleum jelly before use. Most doctors recommend laying the
child flat on his or her back, raising his or her legs, and gently
inserting the thermometer one-half to 1 inch into the rectum, until it
stops. The thermometer must be held in place until it beeps, at which
time it should be removed to check the reading. Rectal temperatures are
higher than other readings, so a rectal temperature exceeding 100.4°F is
usually considered a fever.
A digital thermometer may be used to measure temperature orally if
the child is able to hold the tip of the thermometer under the tongue
while keeping the lips closed. Young children older than 3 months can
suck on a digital pacifier thermometer to record oral temperature. For
an accurate oral measurement, it is best to wait 20 to 30 minutes after
food or drink before taking a reading. An oral temperature of 100°F or
higher is usually considered a fever.
A digital thermometer may also be used to measure a child’s axillary
temperature, with the tip of the thermometer surrounded by the skin of
the armpit. This method is generally considered to be the least
accurate, but it is useful in some situations. The axillary temperature
is lower than the oral temperature, so a reading of 99°F is considered a
A tympanic membrane thermometer is gently inserted into the ear canal
to measure the temperature. For correct use of this digital device, it
is important to precisely follow the accompanying instructions. With a
digital ear thermometer, a reading of 100.4°F or higher is considered a
A temporal artery thermometer contains an infrared scanner that
measures the temperature of the blood vessels in the forehead. The
noncontact scanner is swept across the child’s forehead, and the
temperature is displayed on the digital screen. With this thermometer, a
reading of 100.4°F or higher is considered a fever. Forehead strips,
which the caregiver holds in place until the color changes to denote the
reading, are another option.
When calling a doctor about a child with a fever, be sure to mention
not only the child’s temperature, but also the method used to measure it
(oral, rectal, axillary, ear, forehead).
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