US Pharm. 2014;29(3):HS11-HS14.
ABSTRACT: The pain experienced during labor and delivery can prompt a
number of bodily responses that can affect both the mother and the
fetus. It is important, therefore, that the pain be effectively managed.
Epidural anesthetics are the most popular form of pain management
currently chosen by the patient during labor in the United States. A
number of anesthetics with varying properties are available in the U.S.
Epidural anesthetics must be carefully administered by a qualified
professional in order to minimize complications, such as postdural
headache. Additionally, healthcare professionals must ensure that the
guidelines issued by the American Society of Anesthesiologists are met.
For safe and effective administration, the pharmacist should oversee the
preparation of epidural anesthetics and liaise closely with the
Pain during labor is considered similar in degree to that caused by
complex regional pain syndromes or the amputation of a finger.1
The pain is not life-threatening in healthy women; however, if not
managed appropriately, it may result in worse postnatal depression.1 Furthermore, pain during labor has been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and impaired cognitive function.2,3
During labor, a stress response is initiated that can result in the
release of corticotropin, cortisol, norepinephrine, beta-endorphins, and
epinephrine. Epinephrine can lead to prolonged labor through its
relaxant effect on the uterus.1 Additionally, maternal cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, and oxygen consumption are increased.1
Not all women experience the same level of pain during childbirth.
This variability is attributed to a number of factors—primarily
nulliparity and the use of IV oxytocin, both of which are associated
with more intense labor pain.4 Other factors contributing to
increased pain during labor include younger maternal age, lower back
pain during menstruation, and higher maternal or fetal weight.4
Women who have attended childbirth classes and those who have performed
aerobic-conditioning exercises during the pregnancy may experience
less-intense labor pain.4
To manage labor pain effectively, it is useful to understand its
origin through the different stages of labor. In the first stage of
labor, the pain—resulting from both rhythmic uterine contractions and
progressive cervical dilation—is transmitted through the visceral
afferent nerves to the spinal cord via segments T10–L1.1,4 The patient typically reports pain over the lower abdomen, and in many cases the lower back and sacrum.4 As labor progresses, the perineum stretches and transmits signals through the pudendal nerve and sacral nerves S2–S4.1 This stage is shorter than the first stage, but the pain—principally somatic—is more intense.4
A number of options are available for pain management during labor,
including regional (or neuraxial) anesthesia, systemic opioid analgesia,
continuous labor support, pudendal blocks, immersion in water during
the first stage of labor, sterile water injections in the lumbosacral
spine, hypnosis, and acupuncture.5 In the United States, regional anesthesia, which encompasses epidural anesthesia (also called epidural block or simply epidural) and spinal anesthesia, has been the most widely used form of pain management during labor since 2000.5 A walking epidural is a combination of epidural and spinal anesthesia.5
The cost of an epidural is slightly higher than that of IV analgesia.
According to one study, a vaginal delivery using IV anesthesia costs
$3,117, versus $3,455 for vaginal delivery using an epidural.6
The epidural space is located between the ligamentum flavum and the
dura mater. Extending from the foramen magnum to the sacral hiatus, it
contains emerging nerve roots of the spinal cord, fat, and veins.
Epidural anesthesia involves injection of a local anesthetic and an
opioid into the lumbar epidural space, from which it gradually diffuses
across the dura into the subarachnoid space. Here it acts primarily on
the spinal nerve roots, and to a lesser degree on the spinal cord and
paravertebral nerves.1 Since the epidural space is relatively
larger than the spinal space, more anesthetic volume is required than
with a spinal injection. The onset of action of an epidural is about 15
minutes; that of spinal injection is almost instantaneous.
Ideally, epidural anesthesia results in segmental sympathetic and
sensory nerve block and a decrease in endogenous catecholamines, thereby
allowing onset of pain relief.7 It can also cause
hypotension or restoration of blood pressure (BP) to prelabor levels.
While the degree of motor neuron effect depends upon the concentration
of local anesthetic, most regional local anesthetics affect only
skeletal muscle, not smooth muscle, at clinically relevant doses. This
means that the amplitude or frequency of contractions in the myometrium
is not diminished.8
The anesthetic is usually administered after the diagnosis of active
labor has been established and the patient has requested pain relief.4
Most patients do not request an epidural before cervical dilation of 3
cm, unless they are receiving oxytocin for labor augmentation. Recent
data do not support findings that the use of an epidural block before
cervical dilation of 5 cm will adversely affect the subsequent course of
Guidelines for Administration
The American Society of Anesthesiologists has issued guidelines for the administration of epidural anesthesia (TABLE 1). An anesthesiologist should conduct a preprocedural evaluation and obtain informed consent.1
During the procedure, emergency equipment to treat possible
hypotension, respiratory compromise, seizures, and cardiac arrest must
be at hand. The puncture area should be disinfected with 2%
chlorhexidine in alcohol before the needle is inserted into the epidural
space.10 During anesthesia administration, maternal BP and
fetal heart rate should be monitored. The extent of dermatomal sensory
loss and motor block should be evaluated at regular intervals.
Respiratory monitoring should be performed every hour.1 The
infusion rate is adjusted throughout labor to minimize the extent of
motor block. After delivery, the infusion is discontinued and the
catheter is removed.1 During a cesarean section, an epidural may be used to deliver a more concentrated anesthetic for stronger pain relief.1
A number of local anesthetics are available for epidural anesthesia.
The recommended dosages and properties of each are listed in TABLE 2.
Some factors to consider in selecting the most appropriate anesthetic
include the anesthetic’s potency and duration; surgery requirements (if
any) and duration; and postoperative analgesic requirements.
In most cases, analgesia can be maintained with a lower concentration of anesthetic than that used for induction.4
Patient-controlled epidural anesthesia (PCEA) is an effective and
flexible approach for maintenance of labor analgesia. It has been
proposed that PCEA results in fewer anesthetic interventions and in
reduced dosages of local anesthetics compared with continuous-infusion
epidural (CIE) anesthesia.11
Only preservative-free solutions should be used for epidurals.
Epinephrine is often used adjunctively with the epidural to prolong the
duration of the block, reduce bleeding, and decrease the toxicity of the
anesthetic. The concentration of epinephrine employed is typically
1:200,000 (5 mcg/mL).11
Complications of Epidural Anesthesia
Perhaps the most common complication of epidural anesthesia is postdural puncture headache.4,5
It most frequently occurs in cases in which the dura is accidentally
punctured, typically with a 17- or 18-gauge needle. This accidental
puncturing, referred to as wet tap, occurs in about 1% of cases,
and 70% of these patients develop postdural puncture headache. The
headache usually results when leakage of cerebrospinal fluid leads to a
reduction in intracranial pressure and compensatory cerebral
vasodilation.4,12 In some patients, the headache is
self-resolving; other patients may obtain relief by consuming
caffeinated beverages. About 50% of patients can be definitively treated
using an autologous epidural blood patch. In this procedure, a sterile
injection of 15 to 25 mL of the patient’s blood is introduced into the
epidural space, preferably at the site of the dural puncture, to produce
a clot that blocks the meningeal leak.4,12 From 65% to 90% of patients obtain relief with this method.
Epidural anesthesia has been identiﬁed as an independent risk factor for postpartum urinary retention.13 This effect can be minimized by avoiding dense motor and sensory blocks.1
The use of epidural anesthesia increases the risk of vacuum- or forceps-assisted vaginal delivery.14 It also increases the duration of second-stage labor by 15 to 20 minutes and increases the need for oxytocin administration.15,16
Additionally, abnormal fetal heart tones during labor are seen in about
10% to 20% of patients with regional anesthesia, although this does not
seem to adversely affect the neonate.17
Administration of epidural anesthesia can cause hypertonic uterine
contractions, possibly owing to a rapid increase in plasma epinephrine
levels that leads to reduced beta-agonist tocolytic activity. This
phenomenon, which may result from a very rapid onset of analgesia, can
be reversed with the use of IV terbutaline 250 mcg, nitroglycerin 50 to
150 mcg, or sublingual nitroglycerin spray. 400 mcg.1
About 80% of patients receiving an epidural experience hypotension.
Maternal BP may fall as a result of the elimination of painful stimuli
and the onset of peripheral vasodilation. Although a modest decrease in
BP may not have a significant effect, a large decrease may reduce
uteroplacental blood flow and pose a threat to the fetus. For this
reason, it is important to prevent, or promptly treat, significant
hypotension. Administration of an isotonic electrolyte solution (e.g.,
lactated Ringer’s solution) before the epidural may prevent or reduce
the extent of hypotension. Hypotension during epidural anesthesia may be
treated with additional IV boluses of crystalloid solution and/or
administration of small IV doses of a vasopressor, such as phenylephrine
50 to 100 mcg or ephedrine 5 to 10 mg.1,4
Rare but serious complications of epidural anesthesia include neurologic injury, epidural hematoma, and deep epidural infection.5
Epidural hematoma and epidural abscess are seen in approximately 1 in
168,000 patients and 1 in 145,000 patients, respectively. Persistent
neurologic injury is noted in 1 in 240,000 patients; transient
neurologic injury is more common, occurring in 1 in 6,700.1
High doses of local anesthetic injected intrathecally can cause high
spinal block, which presents as respiratory compromise. Accidental
high-dose IV injection can lead to seizures and cardiac arrest.1 Unintentional subarachnoid injection of local anesthetic can result in total spinal anesthesia.4
To detect accidental subarachnoid or IV catheter placement, an
epidural test dose is recommended. This typically involves
administration of 1.5% lidocaine 3 mL with 1:200,000 epinephrine.4
If the catheter has been placed intrathecally, spinal anesthesia is
rapidly apparent, whereas IV placement is detected by an increase in
heart rate of 20% or more.4
Studies have shown that epidural analgesia does not have a
statistically significant impact on cesarean section risk, maternal
satisfaction with pain relief, or long-term backache. Furthermore,
epidural analgesia does not appear to have an immediate effect on
neonatal status as determined by Apgar scores.14
Contraindications to Epidural Anesthesia
Contraindications to any form of neuraxial anesthesia during labor
include patient refusal, active maternal hemorrhage, increased
intracranial pressure, septicemia, infection at or near the puncture
site, and clinical signs of coagulopathy (including ongoing
thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight or unfractionated
heparins).18 While the presence of an abnormal fetal
heart-rate pattern is not a contraindication to epidural analgesia, many
physicians prefer not to use epidural anesthesia in this situation.4 Inadequate training or experience on the part of those administering the anesthesia is also a contraindication.1
Responsibilities of the Pharmacist
Pharmacists are instrumental in the administration of epidural
anesthetics in a number of ways. For one, pharmacists can actively
participate in the development of prescribing guidelines for epidural
analgesics and in the coprescribing of balanced analgesia, an opioid
antagonist, and antiemetics. Furthermore, they should write or review
the information in patient-information leaflets regarding epidural
infusions to ensure that the pharmacologic information is accurate and
Pharmacists can also devise policies that ensure the safe and legal
handling, storage, administration, and disposal of controlled drugs used
in epidural infusions. Epidurals that are formulated in the local
hospital pharmacy should be aseptically prepared and appropriately
labeled and stored, with preparation overseen by a pharmacist.
Furthermore, it is important that pharmacists regularly monitor
prescriptions for epidural solutions when preprinted prescriptions are
not utilized, as well as prescriptions for adjuvant therapies such as
antiemetics and opioid antagonists.
Pharmacists play a central role in ensuring that the advice and
information available to patients is consistent. To ensure this,
pharmacists should work closely with the pain-management team and other
1. Hawkins J. Epidural analgesia for labor and delivery. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1503-1510.
2. Hiltunen P, Raudaskoski T, Ebeling H, Moilanen I. Does pain relief
during delivery decrease the risk of postnatal depression? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83:257-261.
3. Soet JE, Brack GA, Dilorio C. Prevalence and predictors of women’s experience of psychological trauma during childbirth. Birth. 2003;30:36-46.
4. Vincent RD Jr, Chestnut DH. Epidural analgesia during labor. Am Fam Physician. 1998;58:1785-1792.
5. Schrock SD, Harraway-Smith C. Labor analgesia. Am Fam Physician. 2012;85:447-454.
6. Huang C, Macario A. Economic considerations related to providing
adequate pain relief for women in labour: comparison of epidural and
intravenous analgesia. Pharmacoeconomics. 2002;20:305-318.
7. Abboud TK, Sarkis F, Hung TT, et al. Effects of epidural anesthesia during labor on maternal plasma beta-endorphin levels. Anesthesiology. 1983;59:1-5.
8. Fanning RA, Campion DP, Collins CB, et al. A comparison of the
inhibitory effects of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine on isolated human
pregnant myometrium contractility. Anesth Analg. 2008;107:1303-1307.
9. Chestnut DH, McGrath JM, Vincent RD Jr, et al. Does early
administration of epidural analgesia affect obstetric outcome in
nulliparous women who are in spontaneous labor? Anesthesiology. 1994;80:1201-1208.
10. Hebl JR. The importance and implications of aseptic techniques during regional anesthesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006;31:311-323.
11. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Obstetric
Anesthesia. Practice guidelines for obstetric anesthesia: an updated
report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on
Obstetric Anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2007;106(4):843-863.
12. Ayad S, Demian Y, Narouze SN, Tetzlaff JE. Subarachnoid catheter
placement after wet tap for analgesia in labor: influence on the risk of
headache in obstetric patients. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2003;28:512-515.
13. Olofsson CI, Ekbolm AO, Ekman-Ordeberg GE, Irestedt LE.
Post-partum urinary retention: a comparison between two methods of
epidural analgesia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1997;71:31-34.
14. Anim-Somuah M, Smyth RM, Jones L. Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(12):CD000331.
15. Liu EH, Sia AT. Rates of caesarean section and instrumental
vaginal delivery in nulliparous women after low concentration epidural
infusions or opioid analgesia: systematic review. BMJ. 2004;328:1410-1415.
16. Halpern SH, Muir H, Breen TW, et al. A multicenter randomized
controlled trial comparing patient-controlled epidural with intravenous
analgesia for pain relief in labor. Anesth Analg. 2004;99:1532-1538.
17. Nielsen PE, Erickson JR, Abouleish EI, et al. Fetal heart rate
changes after intrathecal sufentanil or epidural bupivacaine for labor
analgesia: incidence and clinical significance. Anesth Analg. 1996;83:742-746.
18. Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Rowlingson JC, et al. Regional anesthesia
in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy:
American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based
Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2010;35:64-101.
19. American Society of Anesthesiologists. Guidelines for neuraxial
anesthesia in obstetrics.
Accessed November 13, 2013.
20. Nesacaine (chloroprocaine) product information. Schaumburg, IL: APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC; July 2010.
21. Xylocaine (lidocaine) product information. Schaumburg, IL: APP Pharmaceuticals, LLC; March 2010.
22. Carbocaine (mepivacaine) product information. Lake Forest, IL: Hospira, Inc; November 2009.
23. Bupivacaine product information. Lake Forest, IL: Hospira, Inc; January 2013.
24. Duranest (etidocaine) product information. Westborough, MA: Astra Pharmaceutical Products, Inc; January 1987.
25. Naropin (ropivacaine) product information. Westborough, MA: Astra USA, Inc; January 1999.
To comment on this article, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.