Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), a range of complex
neurodevelopmental disabilities, are characterized by social impairment
and communication difficulties that are apparent in young children.
Developmental disorders are marked by significant social, communication, and behavioral impairments.
Because of safety
children, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines should continue to be limited to treatment of
FDA-approved indications or for infections for which no safe and
effective alternative exists.
Although various agents can help relieve the pain, itching, and inflammation, there is no cure for pediatric eczema.
This gastrointestinal disorder is on the rise in pediatric
patients of varying ages, making it a significant chronic disease in
The use of pharmacologic agents focuses on alleviating behavioral symptoms.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is an early childhood condition most commonly caused by the coxsackievirus.
Male circumcision is a common surgical procedure performed in
neonates, generally for religious or cultural reasons.
Applying skin protectants is the best way to prevent and treat this irritation in infants.
Two varicella vaccines are approved for use in children 12 months and older.
Aspirin is considered the most significant causative agent, although this link is often challenged.
In 2010, 12.6% of children (9.4 million) suffered
from skin allergies, 11.6% (8.6 million) from respiratory allergies,
9.5% (7.1 million) from hay fever, and 4.6% (3.4 million) from food
Annually, approximately 6 to 12 million U.S. children aged 3 to 11
years become infested with head lice.
The World Health Organization estimates that more than 150 million
cases of pneumonia occur each year in children aged under 5 years.
This formulation can be compounded for use until the manufactured product—recently in short supply—is readily available.
Typically thought of as a type of childhood seizure disorder, absence
seizures also may present in older populations or as a component of
multiple other epileptic disorders.
Kawasaki disease—an acute, self-limiting vasculitis of childhood—is the
leading cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in North America.
increase in childhood obesity, considered an epidemic by many experts, represents a
major public health concern.
Children living in nonnuclear families are more likely to delay
getting prescription medication and to visit
an emergency room two or more times in a year.
Labeling for OTC cough and cold medications now states: “Do not use in children under 4 years of age.”
Drugs may be administered to pregnant patients to prevent or correct certain abnormalities in the fetus.
This common skin infection in children is caused by Staphylococcus
Although many patients can be treated with oral antibiotics, infants should be evaluated for IV antibiotic therapy.
There has been a renewed interest in metabolic syndrome in children in
recent years in association with increasing childhood obesity, and the
origins of metabolic syndrome have been traced back to childhood.
Theopylline and caffeine are equally effective treatment modalities for
infants with this condition.
The proportion of children with special health care needs increased from 13% in 2001 to 14% in 2005–2006.
Growing resistance to many forms of treatment make this parasite hard
Otitis media is a common illness affecting both infants and
children, often multiple times during the first few years of life.
This remains a serious disease in developing countries that do not offer
the benefit of routine vaccination.
Hypertension has become a significant pediatric health problem owing to the increased number of overweight children.
Education and provision of resources are necessary to help stem this growing problem among teens.
This functional brain-gut disorder is characterized by recurrent severe
prolonged episodes of nausea and vomiting in otherwise healthy people.
Early identification of functional difficulties and initiation of relevant therapies and services can help lessen detrimental effects on a child's development.
To allay symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, therapy should include both a psychosocial component and medication.
Breastfeeding mothers often approach pharmacists for counsel, not only
concerning issues related to medication or devices and products, but
also regarding the act of breastfeeding and its accompanying concerns
According to a recent survey of pharmacists, more than 60% of OTC
recommendations sought by the public involved cough and cold products.
Frequently interrelated, unhealthy dietary behaviors and sedentary habits are established during
childhood and adolescence, according to the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.
Although there has been a general reluctance to use lipid-lowering drugs in the pediatric population, more evidence is becoming available that suggests effectiveness.
Although nonprescription products are of no use in treating this common childhood condition, the pharmacist should be prepared to answer the parent’s questions.
When used as directed, nonprescription cough and cold products can be
safe for the pediatric population, and a pharmacist's counseling is
integral to ensuring that they are being used safely and at appropriate
Although types of topical anesthetics have not changed considerably
over the last few decades, several advances have been made in the
technologies available for drug delivery.
The pharmacist is on the front lines of pharmaceutical care when patients need assistance with minor health conditions.
T he American Diabetes Association (ADA) defines diabetes mellitus as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
Tobacco use among adolescents increases the risk of smoking-related disease and premature death (more than five million of today's adolescent smokers will die from tobacco-related disease)...
Tobacco use among adolescents increases the risk of smoking-related disease and premature death (more than five million of today's adolescent smokers will die from tobacco-related disease).
Scarlet fever is an infectious disease caused by invasion of the upper respiratory tract by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes .
Vaccines are medical miracles, saving more lives and preventing more deaths than any other medical advance in the last century.
Each year, millions of infants and children require sedation and pain control for medical procedures.
A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published online by the American Academy of Pediatrics revealed that an estimated 7,000 children ages 11 and younger are treated in hospital emergency departments each year because of cough and cold medications.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattentiveness, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity and represents a common behavioral disorder of childhood.
Over the past two decades, pain assessment and management in children has greatly improved due in part to the development of age-specific pain assessment tools and a better understanding of the role of analgesics in this population.
Croup is a swelling of the tissue around the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) that results in a tight, barking cough.
Despite a 0.6% increase in pediatric malignancies, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that fewer children are dying from cancers. In a report by Loria Pollack, MD, and colleagues that was published in Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Report, the researchers stated that the lower pediatric mortality rate of cancer in the U.S. "likely reflects advances in cancer treatment in this population."
While the overall incidence of lead poisoning has decreased, it is still prevalent.
Researchers at Pennsylvania State University report in the online Journal of Pediatrics that by the time American children are four years old, they are generally deficient in the consumption of dairy products.
Autistic disorder (AD) is one of the great modern medical mysteries; the cause of the condition is unknown, and, despite significant research, no cure is available.
Despite improvements in the field of dentistry, dental decay remains the number one illness among children, surpassing asthma.
The notion of sitting a child who is 8 to 16 months old in front of a television to watch DVDs and videos to help develop language skills may be an urban myth according to researchers at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Allergic diseases are important causes of morbidity in the United States.
In the past, cardiovascular disorders were a greater concern in the adult population than in the pediatric population.