Despite the introduction of newer anticoagulants, IV unfractionated heparin is one of the most commonly used parenteral anticoagulants for preventing and treating venous thromboembolism
Anticoagulant medicines are used to keep blood clots from forming in the arteries or veins or prevent existing clots from growing larger.
Historically, cardiac fibrosis has not been a focus for treatment; however, it is now believed that therapy could reduce the progression of heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases.
Adverse effects, primarily cardiovascular in nature, are of concern because of their severe and possibly chronic nature.
Digoxin, a cardiac glycoside, has inotropic effects in addition to effects on cardiac output.
Evidence-based strategies, including the CDC’s Million Hearts initiative, are being used to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
No true antidote for these agents has been developed, so patients requiring rapid reversal must be appropriately monitored and managed.
Testing for the inflammatory marker CRP may improve risk stratification, especially in intermediate-risk patients.
DVT should be treated using anticoagulant and possibly thrombolytic therapy.
2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association
Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol takes an evidence-based
approach that stresses the reduction of cardiovascular risk.
Long QT syndrome, a heart condition in which cardiac
repolarization is delayed following a heartbeat, can be detected by
measuring the QT interval on an ECG.
Acute pericarditis (inflammation of the pericardial sac) is the most
common pericardial disease, accounting for 5% of emergency department
admissions in patients presenting with nonischemic chest pain.
associated with maintaining warfarin render target-specific oral anticoagulants an
attractive option because they do not require routine monitoring
and are associated with a low number of drug
Nonselective NSAIDs have the lowest risk of cardiovascular events.
This preparation is suitable for pediatric patients and other patients who are unable to swallow the solid oral dosage form.
Blood pressure readings can be taken manually or with an automatic
Pharmacotherapy plays a key role before, during, and after this cardiovascular procedure.
Medical devices represent a relatively small share of national health
Low blood pressure can be easily recognized by key signs and symptoms.
An estimated 3% to 5% of children have high blood pressure, and the incidence is rising.
Pharmacists with specialized knowledge about the agents
used for this disorder are well equipped to perform drug monitoring,
thus preventing adverse events.
Lowering body temperature after cardiac arrest has been show to improve morbidity and mortality
Discharge support and rapid postdischarge follow-up are important for patients with this cardiovascular disorder.
Atrial fibrillation affects more than 2 million people in the United States, making it the most common atrial arrhythmia.
Patients should consult their physician before taking aspirin to prevent stroke and heart attack.
Cardiac asthma is
commonly mistaken for bronchial asthma since both conditions have
similar symptoms and timing.
According to a CDC
report, high blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are key
risk factors for heart disease, and 49% of adults have at least one of
these three risk factors.
Sudden cardiac death is an event that can occur in asymptomatic
individuals, as well as in those with advanced cardiovascular disease.
A liquid dosage form usually is necessary for infants and young children requiring this drug.
Mitral valve prolapse is often first noticed during a physical examination, when a murmur or clicking sound is heard through a stethoscope as the heart beats.
This condition is the most common manifestation of myocardial ischemia.
Depression is common in patients with cardiac disease.
Peripheral artery disease is caused by a buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries.
While bare-metal stents are still utilized, drug-eluting stents now offer clinicians the ability to prevent restenosis via a
Hyperlipidemia is dangerous because the extra cholesterol circulating in
the bloodstream forms the basis for plaque lining the arteries.
Both of these forms of low blood pressure have additive, rather than synergistic, mechanisms.
Implementation of a pharmacist/student monitoring program will likely
improve patient care for anticoagulated patients on warfarin.
Venous thromboembolism occurs with high frequency in hospitalized patients who do not receive anticoagulant therapy.
Pharmacologic therapy for stroke may be divided into stroke-specific treatment and stroke prevention.
Heart disease is a leading cause of death in people of most racial/ethnic groups,
including African Americans, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Hispanics,
This adverse event may be dose related.
Platelet activation plays a major role in normal homeostasis, but
uncontrolled platelet activation leads to the formation of occlusive
platelet-rich thrombi, which cause ischemic diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke,
and peripheral arterial disease.
cognizance of the fact that cardiovascular disease—once thought to
be a man’s disease—is the leading cause of death among women in the
United States has increased 24% since 1997.
Chest pain is a common occurrence in primary, acute, and urgent care
settings, and it is one of the most cited reasons for which people seek
The presence or absence of target organ damage is the guiding factor in classification and treatment of this condition.
In the United States, acute pericarditis accounts for approximately 1
of every 1,000 hospital admissions and 1% of emergency room visits in
patients presenting with ST-segment elevation on ECG.
According to the CDC, 24%, 12%, 6%, and 3% of U.S. adults were told
during ambulatory care visits in 2006 that they had hypertension, heart
disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke, respectively.
Conflicting evidence has been published to support both the
cardiovascular benefits of and the risks associated with calcium intake.
Torsades de pointes
is an ECG manifestation characterized
by a form of ventricular tachycardia with a spiral appearance and
complexes that first look positive and then negative.
A great many OTC products advise against medically unsupervised use in patients with heart disease or hypertension.
Despite specific criteria for these agents, eligibility, dosing, and administration errors may occur.
A number of alternatives to this widely used drug are available or under investigation, including dabigatran (Pradaxa).
Prompt identification of the underlying causes of a fainting spell is
essential in determining prognosis and treatment strategies.
According to the American Heart Association, more than 6 million
people in the United States experience angina, with more women than men
Hypertension has become a significant pediatric health problem owing to the increased number of overweight children.
This device senses the heart's rate and rhythm and transmits an electrical impulse to normalize an abnormal heartbeat.
Adopting healthy practices is essential to preventing hypertension and managing it successfully.
Initial treatment is directed at hemodynamic improvement and reducing congestion.
Despite declines in recent years, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in people of most ethnicities.
The relationship between nutrient deficiency and heart health is explored.
Hypertension is one of the most common chronic medical conditions in
the United States, affecting 29% of people over the age of 18.
Dual antiplatelet therapy is an imperative medical therapy for the secondary prevention of ACS.
A defibrillator is a device that applies therapeutic electric shocks to
the heart in order to restore normal heart rhythms before the
malfunctioning heart suffers sudden cardiac arrest.
Cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide, involves mechanisms that have yet to be fully understood.
Screening warfarin patients for consumption of grapefruit, cranberry, alcohol, and tobacco products may help reduce the risk of an interaction.
Metabolic syndrome, also referred to as Syndrome X
or insulin resistance syndrome
consists of a number of metabolic risk factors that increase the risk
for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other
cardiovascular complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, heart
failure, and thrombotic events.
In 2005, cardiovascular disease—including myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, and stroke—affected 459 million women and 410 million men in the United States.
An antioxidant, or a free-radical scavenger, is a molecule capable of decreasing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules.
Landmark clinical trials such as the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (also known as 4S), the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study, the Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease Trial, the Heart Protection Study, and the Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial have solidified the utility of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Beta-Blockers for the Treatment of Hypertension
Pharmacists often receive inquiries about the effects of medications on blood pressure.
The human body responds to injury and infection by a process called inflammation.
Heart failure (HF) afflicts 5.3 million people in the
Cocaine is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs, and its abuse is a widespread problem in the United States and around the world...
A vaccine being developed in Switzerland and currently in an industry-sponsored phase II trial appears to effectively block angiotensin II, a known cause of hypertension.
An international team of researchers has concluded that patients who are prescribed drugs to treat rheumatoid arthritis could be lowering their chances of heart attacks and strokes.
Metabolic syndrome--which is characterized by risk factors for cardiovascular disease that include diabetes, hypertension, elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good" cholesterol), high fasting glucose levels, and increased waist size--can be triggered in adults who eat two or more portions of meat a day.
Researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital involved with the Framingham Heart Study reported that moderate vitamin D deficiency nearly doubles the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure over a mean of 5.4 years in patients with high blood pressure.
Last year saw the introduction of a direct renin antagonist (RA), the first new class of antihypertensive medications to enter the market in more than a decade.
1 It is the most common cause of severe, nonischemic mitral regurgitation in the United States.
Blood pressure measurement is critical in diagnosing hypertension and managing the efficacy of antihypertensive medications.
Warfarin, the oral anticoagulant most frequently used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders, is increasingly common among seniors.
Adults with diabetes are at greater risk than those without for dying from heart disease.
During the fall of 2007, I was 43 years old.
The atria are the two smaller upper chambers of the heart that pump blood into the ventricles (the two larger lower chambers of the heart) after they receive an electrical signal.
For most people, taking a daytime nap can revive a sagging energy level, but for some it may actually help to lower their blood pressure.
Blood Pressure Vaccine Shows Promise Swiss researchers say their work in producing a viable blood pressure vaccine is on the right course.
Seeing Red in Cherries May Promote Health Benefits Researchers at the Ohio State University and University of Michigan suggest that the coloring in cherries and other fruits and vegetables may help slow the growth of colon cancer cells or lower the risk of metabolic syndrome and heart disease.
A survey of nearly 9,000 business travelers found that long flights tripled the risk of developing venous thrombosis.
A study conducted by researchers at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, concluded that breathing diesel fumes during exercise, even for a brief period of time, promoted myocardial ischemia in men who have had a heart attack.
A pulmonary embolism is a blood clot that breaks off from the walls of a vein and travels through the circulation to the heart and eventually the lungs. The clot blocks the flow of blood to the lung tissue, which can result in serious complications and even death.
Infectious endocarditis (IE) is a relatively uncommon infection that was first described in 1885 by William Osler.
Obesity has become an epidemic on a global scale and poses one of the biggest concerns to human health and well-being.
Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States.
In the past, cardiovascular disorders were a greater concern in the adult population than in the pediatric population.
Blockage of the coronary arteries is a major cause of heart disease and heart attacks.
Intermittent claudication is a painful, cramp-like condition usually experienced in the calves that begins during exercise and disappears at rest.
Several drugs have been withdrawn from the U.
Each day, nearly 2,500 Americans die of cardiovascular disease--representing an average of one death every 35 seconds.
Heart failure (HF) is defined as the inability of the heart to provide adequate blood supply throughout the body.
Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common types of arrhrythmias.
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) include the spectrum of clinical conditions ranging from unstable angina to non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) and Q-wave MI.
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are highly utilized classes of medications that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
The American Heart Association defines peripheral vascular disease (PVD) as "diseases of blood vessels outside of the heart and brain.
According to Health, United States, 2006, the 30th report on the health status of the nation, the leading cause of death for infants was congenital malformations, unintentional injuries for those ages 1 to 44, cancer for middle-aged adults (ages 45 to 64), and heart disease for older adults (ages 65 and older).
A stent is a tiny metal mesh tube that is inserted into a narrowed or blocked artery to open it and restore blood flow. The most common use of a stent is to open an artery that is partially blocked by plaque, which builds up on the inner artery walls and slows blood flow to the heart.
Tremendous advancements have been made in our understanding of immunology and transplantation in the last 20 years.
Antioxidants help protect human body cells from the formation of radicals.