Acute kidney injury is characterized by a rapid loss in kidney function with or without changes in urine output.
Kidney stones are a common urinary tract disorder, accounting for many emergency room visits in the U.S. each year.
This often-overlooked cause of high blood pressure can also lead to end-stage renal disease.
Uremic pruritus (chronic itching in patients with chronic kidney disease) has a prevalence of 15% to 49% and impacts more than one-third of patients undergoing dialysis.
The pathophysiology is not fully understood, rendering pharmacologic treatment difficult.
Clinicians must be able to recognize signs and symptoms of this potentially life-threatening condition.
Managing fluid and electrolytes, anemia, and mineral metabolism is key to optimizing therapy.
Approximately 20% of hospital readmissions in the first year posttransplant are due to infectious complications.
These comorbid conditions can complicate the treatment of pain with opioid analgesics.
According to the U.S. Renal Data System 2013 annual data report, 500,000 patients are on dialysis and more than 15,000 undergo kidney transplantation annually.
Metabolic syndrome is a collection of co-occurring disorders
that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus.
Low plasma sodium levels may be induced by psychogenic polydipsia.
The National Health Interview Survey noted that 2% of individuals
aged 18 years and older were diagnosed with kidney disease in 2011.
A prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease,
particularly in dialysis patients, iron deficiency anemia remains
underdiagnosed and undertreated.
Since generalized edema is the major
clinical manifestation of this condition, it is often misdiagnosed as
congestive heart failure in geriatric patients.
Acute management involves a combination of supportive care and pharmacotherapy.
In this syndrome, several biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with deteriorating renal function are impaired.
The FDA has recently approved two different agents for weight loss in obese patients.
Most hypoglycemia is iatrogenic and associated with drug-treated diabetes mellitus.
Most CKD patients have high blood pressure, with each disease exacerbating the other.
Induction therapy is highly effective for treating this renal disease, which often has poor outcomes.
In 2010, more than 26 million adults had chronic kidney disease, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and
Pharmacists should counsel these patients about lifestyle, dietary factors, and medication effects.
Limited information about this disorder’s pathophysiology makes diagnosis and treatment a challenge.
It is unclear what causes cysts to form in the kidneys of patients with this disorder.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show that
23 million adults (11.5%) suffered from chronic kidney disease in
Intravenous immunoglobulin has been in short supply for years, which poses treatment dilemmas.
Addison’s disease, a disorder of the adrenal glands, is characterized
by a deficiency of hormones the body needs to regulate most bodily
Longer life expectancy and the higher prevalence of obesity and type 2
diabetes may explain the trend toward an increased incidence of this
Cushing’s syndrome is a manifestation of symptoms that are precipitated by excessive cortisol production.
There has been a renewed interest in metabolic syndrome in children in
recent years in association with increasing childhood obesity, and the
origins of metabolic syndrome have been traced back to childhood.
This condition is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women.
This disorder, especially the acute form, incurs a significant burden in terms of medical care and drug costs.
Bisphosphonates, which are excreted via the kidneys, may accumulate in
patients with diminished renal function, and toxicity may occur.
Awareness of chronic renal disorders is low in the U.S., so screening
and assessment are important.
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is destruction of the thyroid gland by the immune system.
Polyomavirus infection is an emerging challengein
Acute renal failure (ARF) is defined as a rapid loss of renal function due to damage to the kidneys.
Tremendous advancements have been made in our understanding of immunology and transplantation in the last 20 years.
In the United States, kidney cancer (renal cell carcinoma) is estimated to be the seventh most common cancerous condition diagnosed in men and the 13th most common in women, accounting for 2.7% of all malignant conditions.