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The Inpatient With Dementia

It is often the behavioral symptoms associated with disease progression that lead to hospitalization.

Electromedical Modalities in Pain Management

Pain specialists can now prescribe treatments that attack moderate-to-severe chronic pain using targeted electromedical modalities, such as spinal cord stimulators, electroanalgesic delivery systems, and pulsed radiofrequency therapies.

Pain Management in Dementia

Proper assessment of pain in elderly patients is challenging.

Comparison of Methohexital and Propofol Anesthesia in Electroconvulsive Therapy: The Ideal Agent

The ideal anesthetic agent for ECT should have a rapid onset of action and short recovery time.

Antipsychotic Use for Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia

During the moderate and late stages of dementia, patients experience behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, such as agitation, psychosis, and aggression.


Borderline Personality Disorder in Late Life: A Medication Adherence Variable 11/17/2014

Commonly seen in all medical settings, BPD may complicate treatment of comorbidities and adversely affect quality of life.

Academic Detailing: Accurate, Relevant, Balanced, and Engaging 10/16/2014

Educating clinicians through academic detailing is an effective way of enhancing clinical decision making to optimize therapeutic outcomes. 

Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer: Obesity, Hypertension, and Diabetes 9/17/2014

The most common gynecologic malignancy in the elderly may become more common as the metabolic

syndrome increases. Is metformin a promising adjuvant therapy?


Urinary Incontinence: Urologic and Medication Etiology in Seniors 8/20/2014

Pharmacists, as collaborators in geriatric urologic care, can identify medication etiologies of urinary incontinence, raise awareness of these issues, and provide caregiver guidance.

Recognizing Causes of Dyspnea to Prevent Hospital Admissions 7/17/2014

In the elderly, dyspnea on exertion is a more common manifestation of myocardial ischemia than is chest pain.

Metatarsophalangeal Osteoarthritis: Pain in the Big Toe Joint 6/19/2014

The pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility of this condition can contribute to functional disability in seniors.

Geriatric Emergency Department Care: The Pharmacist’s Role 5/16/2014

Adverse drug events are thought to account for more than 10% of ED visits and 25% of hospital admissions in older patients.

Hepatitis C Alert: Baby Boomers Should Be Tested 4/18/2014

According to the CDC, 75% of patients with hepatitis C are baby boomers; testing, early diagnosis, and treatment can prevent liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer.

Metrics to Define and Measure Quality Pain Management 3/19/2014

Pain may be under-recognized in patients who have cognitive or sensory impairments or difficulties with language or speech; it is frequently undertreated in cognitively impaired patients.

Mechanical Heart Valves: Contraindication for Dabigatran Therapy 2/19/2014

Aging can cause weak or stenotic valves. Dabigatran is more problematic than warfarin regarding side effects in patients with mechanical heart valves.

Head Injury and Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy 1/22/2014

Repetitive brain trauma is associated with progressive neurologic deterioration in some individuals; later stages of disease are associated with dementia.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Nuances of Drug Therapy in Seniors and the Role of Vitamin D 12/18/2013

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are associated with a late, secondary peak incidence between 60 and 80 years of age.

Rasagiline Update: Postmarket Evidence and Clinical Considerations 10/18/2013

Is rasagiline neuroprotective in Parkinson’s disease? Pharmacists need to rely on current clinical factors.

Access to Health Care: Influential Factors and Cultural Competence 9/18/2013

Navigating across cultures requires tools such as learning how to listen, empathize, and negotiate a treatment and pharmaceutical plan with patients.

Optimal Dosing for Elderly Heart Patients Explored 9/18/2013

Nephrotic Syndrome: Medication and Other Related Risks 8/20/2013

Since generalized edema is the major clinical manifestation of this condition, it is often misdiagnosed as congestive heart failure in geriatric patients.

Diffuse Interstitial Lung Disease 7/17/2013

In conjunction with the rising median age of the U.S. population, an increase in the use of pneumotoxic drugs to treat malignancies and cardiovascular diseases in the elderly contributes to an increased incidence of interstitial lung disease.

Common Benign Skin Growths in Older Adults 6/21/2013

The presence of more than 20 moles indicates a higher-than-average risk for melanoma; self-monitoring for warning signs and skin surveillance by a clinician are imperative.

Antibiotic Therapy: Adverse Effects and Dosing Considerations 4/19/2013

Age-associated physiological changes render the elderly more susceptible to infection and also predispose them to antibiotic toxicity.

Cervical Spondylosis: Neck Pain, Stiffness, and Associated Features 3/20/2013

Degenerative changes of the cervical spine, associated with chronic neck pain  

and stiffness, have a strong association with aging.

Age-Associated Vulnerability and Cardiovascular Function: Medication Therapy Management 2/20/2013

Age-related alterations in cardiovascular structure and function, current prescribing trends, and “post-hospital syndrome” require pharmacists’ attention and expertise.

Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (Silent Reflux) 12/19/2012

Laryngopharyngeal reflux, or “silent reflux,” differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease in that it is frequently not associated with symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation.

Vascular Dementia: Potentially Preventable Cognitive Impairment 11/20/2012

Also called vascular cognitive impairment and most often related to cerebrovascular disease, this type of dementia is the second most common cause of age-related dementia, following Alzheimer’s disease.

Focus on the Foot: Changes With Age and Disease 10/19/2012

Age-related changes of the foot and manifestations of systemic disease cause problems including pain, infection, and reduced range of motion.

Poor Vision Is Not Part of Aging 9/19/2012

Certain vitamins and nutrients can protect the eye from various ocular diseases, such as cataracts, macular degeneration, and glaucoma.

Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Senior Women: Risks and Recommendations 9/17/2012

As women age, they are at greater physiological risk for alcohol-related health problems.

Raising Awareness of Infectious Arthritis 8/21/2012

The risk of this serious disorder increases with age and certain comorbidities, such as diabetes, cancer, and immunosuppression with corticosteroids.

Advance Directives for Medical Decisions 7/18/2012

This process encompasses consideration of various paths an illness may take and contingencies for responding to them, based on a patient’s values and care goals.

Medications That Worsen and Strategies That Improve Urinary Incontinence 6/20/2012

While many seniors believe that this potentially disabling condition is normal and that seeking treatment is futile, in actuality UI is never normal and in most cases can be treated.

Pain as a Barrier to Exercise for Successful Aging 5/22/2012

Familiarity with exercise and pain management guidelines can help direct pharmacists’ clinical recommendations for senior patients.

Actinic Keratosis: Treating a Potential Malignancy 4/23/2012

From years of exposure, rough, dry, and scaly precancerous lesions develop on sun-exposed skin.

Atrial Septal Defect 2/17/2012

Surgical closure aims to reverse hemodynamic abnormalities and prevent complications such as heart failure, paradoxical embolization, and irreversible pulmonary vascular disease. 

Acute Pancreatitis: Risks, Causes, and Mortality in Older Adults 12/20/2011

In the elderly, acute pancreatitis is most commonly caused by gallstones, is more likely to be severe, and is associated with higher mortality. 

Intellectual Disability: Highlighting Senior Care Issues 11/16/2011

Although people with intellectual disability exhibit considerable morbidity, the numbers surviving into old age are rapidly increasing.

Osteoarthritis of the Hand: Focus on Individualized Multimodal Therapy 10/19/2011

Even mild or moderate OA hand pain may negatively impact an individual’s physical and emotional status, with the potential to significantly reduce quality of life. 

Urogenital Symptoms of Menopause: Atrophic Vaginitis and Atrophic Urethritis 9/20/2011

Urogenital symptoms, such as vaginal dryness and/or discomfort during intercourse, recurrent bladder infections, and stress incontinence, need not reduce quality of life nor be suffered in silence. 

Predisposition to Infection in the Elderly 8/19/2011

A decline in immune function with aging may be viewed as a form of acquired immunodeficiency. 

Differential Diagnosis of Asthma and COPD in Older Adults: Role of Spirometry 7/20/2011

Objective pulmonary function testing helps differentiate these conditions in seniors, who often become tolerant of severe, long-standing airway obstruction and underreport respiratory symptoms.  

UTIs in the Geriatric Population: Challenges for Clinicians 6/20/2011

The challenge of developing guidelines for the diagnosis, management, treatment, and prevention of urinary tract infections is a daunting one.

Postherpetic Neuralgia: Seniors at Risk 5/18/2011

Some patients, particularly the elderly, have persistent or recurrent pain in the involved nerve distribution that may be permanent

Aortic Stenosis: Evidence Supports Surgery 2/18/2011

Since progression of this condition is so gradual, and symptoms may be attributed to normal aging, its severity is often underestimated.

Collaborative Patient Care for Seniors With Pain 1/20/2011

Professionals facilitate and guide, rather than dictate, treatment.

Gallstones: Aging and Medications Increase Risk 12/17/2010

About 50% to 70% of acute cholecystitis occurs in seniors; use of estrogen replacement therapy in post-menopausal women also increases risk.

Common Adverse Effects of Antipsychotic Agents in the Elderly 11/17/2010

Seniors experience more adverse effects with psychoactive medications, and the effects tend to be more serious, than those seen in younger adults.

Preventing Pneumonia in Seniors 10/20/2010

Focusing on vaccination status can help prevent this inflammatory infection in the elderly. Invasive pneumococcal disease can also be avoided through immunization.

Sarcopenia: Loss of Muscle Mass in Older Adults 9/20/2010

Without intervention, a 50% loss of skeletal muscle is likely by age 75 due to the aging process.

Vitamin Deficiencies in Seniors 8/19/2010

Anemia, cognitive impairment, infections, and poor wound healing are among the associated manifestations of mild vitamin deficiencies in the elderly.

Post-Stroke Aspiration Pneumonia 7/20/2010

The most frequent infectious cause of death in elderly patients is pneumonia; the presence of a serious comorbidity increases risk. 

Subclinical Hypothyroidism 6/17/2010

This condition is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women.

Kaposi's Sarcoma: Prognosis Varies With Form 4/19/2010

The classic form of this disease occurs most often in men over 60 years old of Italian, Jewish, or Eastern European lineage.

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Cardiac Pacemaker 2/19/2010

This device senses the heart's rate and rhythm and transmits an electrical impulse to normalize an abnormal heartbeat.

Warfarin in Seniors: Reducing Likelihood of Harm 2/19/2010

Anticoagulants are one of the most common medications associated with preventable adverse drug events in this population.

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy 11/19/2009

Difficulty looking up without extending the neck or trouble climbing up and down stairs are some of the Parkinson's-like symptoms may signal this debilitating condition.

The Dying Patient: Choices, Control, and Communication 10/21/2009

Pharmacists should be familiar with the concepts regarding end-of-life care so that they may better guide seniors, their families, and caregivers.

Obesity: Reality and Relevance to Health 9/21/2009

There has been a significant increase in obesity in the United States within the last 2 decades, and excess body weight contributes to the development of chronic conditions in later years.

Amyloidosis: Interference With Organ Structure and Function 8/20/2009

This disorder is more common in men and in people over 40 years of age.

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Pharmacotherapy of Diabetes in the Elderly 7/20/2009

By optimizing medication use and reducing the risks of polypharmacy, the pharmacists plays a key role in decreasing morbidity and mortality in this patient population.

Raising Awareness About Pulmonary Embolism 7/20/2009

Due to vagueness of signs and symptoms, this serious condition may be underdiagnosed or overdiagnosed, especially in the elderly.

Caring for the Aging: Key Health Care Legislation 6/18/2009

Various resources can assist pharmacists in honing the skills necessary to serve American seniors with quality care.

Minor Eye Problems in the Elderly 6/18/2009

Dry or red eye, allergic conjunctivitis, and foreign bodies in the eye are secondary ocular conditions common in older patients.

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The Use of OTC Medications in Older Adults 6/18/2009

To successfully help seniors make appropriate nonprescription drug choices, it is essential for pharmacists to correctly assess their symptoms.

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Treatment of Hypertension in the Elderly 6/18/2009

Age-related physiologic changes frequently lead to high blood pressure in aging adults and affect the pharmacokinetics of medications used to treat it, so therapy should be carefully individualized and implemented.

Health Status and Health Care of Elderly Americans 6/18/2009

In 2007, 37.9 million Americans, constituting 12.6% of the U.S. population, were over the age of 65.

Novel Device for Medication Management 6/18/2009

Medication compliance, or adherence, has been described as a patient's actions regarding medication administration that are in accordance with medical advice.

Assessing Pain in the Cognitively Impaired 5/19/2009

Pharmacists may help caregivers provide appropriate care by educating them on the use of pain scales and observational clues.

Osteomalacia: Vitamin D Deficiency and Bone Pain 3/18/2009

Osteomalacia is less common than osteoporosis, can be insidious, and may present comorbidly with osteoporosis.

Venous Thrombosis: Pathogenesis and Potential for Embolism 2/20/2009

With advancing age greater than 60 years a known risk, deep vein thrombosis is the primary cause of pulmonary embolism.

Contrast-Induced Nephropathy 12/15/2008

Visualizing organs of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, such as the liver and gallbladder, and detecting cysts, abscesses, tumors, and obstructions can be achieved through radiographic imaging.

Antipsychotics in Seniors 11/18/2008

The FDA has determined new data provide evidence concluding the conventional antipsychotic agents share the increased risk of death in elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis that has been documented with the atypical antipsychotics.

Nebivolol: New Beta-Blocker for Hypertension 10/17/2008

Beta-Blockers for the Treatment of Hypertension

Postmenopausal Vaginal Bleeding 9/18/2008

A lthough relatively common, vaginal bleeding is considered abnormal when reported in a woman who has passed the onset of menopause.

Shame on New Jersey and AARP 8/19/2008

I like New Jersey.

Blueberries May Reverse Forgetfulness in Elderly 8/19/2008

A research team from the University of Reading and the Peninsula Medical School in southwestern England that is studying memory loss in the elderly think they have discovered a means of reversing the forgetfulness of aging.

Techno Care for Grandma and Grandpa 8/19/2008

In the future, robots could be taking the place of traditional caregivers of the elderly.

Sexual Activity and STDs Among Seniors 8/19/2008

S exually transmitted diseases (STDs) ( TABLE 1 ) can be contracted later in life--a fact too often overlooked by seniors and health care providers alike.

Tuberculosis: A Preventable Cause of Death in the Elderly 7/18/2008

Along with the elderly population's growth in numbers, there has been an increase in the number of tuberculosis (TB) cases among seniors.

Dental Health of Older Adults 6/19/2008

Oral health is an integral part of general health and well-being, but older adults often neglect it.

Potentially Inappropriate OTC Medications in Older Adults 6/19/2008

In 1991, Mark Beers and an expert panel developed explicit criteria

Baby Boomers on Brink of Health Care Crisis 6/19/2008

Almost all health care providers care for seniors to some extent at one point or another

Consequences of Persistent Pain 5/20/2008

There are numerous consequences of persistent pain in older adults ( TABLE 1 )...

Diverticulitis: Overview and Management 3/20/2008

Some illnesses are found to take varied courses in geriatric patients.

Warfarin and Adverse Drug Events 2/20/2008

Warfarin, the oral anticoagulant most frequently used to control and prevent thromboembolic disorders, is increasingly common among seniors.

Causes of Seizures in the Elderly 1/24/2008

A variety of neurologic conditions present more often in individuals of advancing age.

Older Drivers Benefit from Retraining 1/23/2008

A study reported in the Journal of Gerontology showed that drivers age 70 and older might benefit from a driver's-education program.

Dementia Affects 3.4 Million Americans 71 and Older 12/20/2007

Researchers at Duke University and the University of Michigan report that approximately 14% of Americans age 71 and older have some form of dementia.

GERD Update: The Refractory Patient 12/20/2007

Heartburn, one of the classic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is a very common occurrence among the general population.

Serotonin Syndrome 11/19/2007

One of the many ways that pharmacists make a difference in the care of their patients is through educating themselves about, monitoring for, and raising awareness of preventable medication-related conditions.

Seniors and Drug Development 10/18/2007

Astonishingly, it is frequently observed that the efficacy and safety of new pharmaceuticals are evaluated in patient populations with significantly different characteristics from some of the patients for whom the treatments will be prescribed in clinical practice.

Screening for Dementia in Older Females 9/19/2007

Dementia can devastate the lives of patients and their families.

Depression: Suicide's Primary Remediable Risk Factor 8/20/2007

In the United States, suicide ranks 11th among causes of death.

Sex and the Senior Citizen 8/20/2007

Sexuality and sexual function are important indicators of quality of life in all stages of adulthood.

Pneumococcal Vaccine 7/13/2007

In the United States, the most common infectious cause of death is pneumonia.

Principles of Pain Management in the Elderly 6/19/2007

Pain is a common and often undertreated phenomenon in patients 65 and older that is often attributed to physical injuries and trauma or may stem from a range of disease states.

Diseases Most Prevalent in Older Americans 6/19/2007

According to surveys by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, older Americans have high hopes of more drugs being available in the near future.

Alzheimer’s Disease 6/19/2007

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly.

Seniors at Risk for Delirium 6/19/2007

Delirium is an acute, confused state.

Therapeutic Options for Glaucoma 6/19/2007

Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world.

Oral Health and Elder Care 6/19/2007

Oral diseases increase in prevalence with age and are often complicated by comorbidities, including chronic systemic diseases, and medications.

Medication and Alcohol Misuse Among Older Adults 6/19/2007

Prescription medication and alcohol misuse affect up to 17% of Americans ages 65 and older.

Urinary Incontinence 6/19/2007

Urinary incontinence (UI) is best defined as a variety of abnormalities of the urinary tract that result in the inability to experience normal micturition, leading to involuntary loss of bladder control.

Aging and Sexuality 6/19/2007

The term sexuality has many definitions.

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Hip Fractures 6/14/2007

Hip fractures are typical in the aging population. Although the majority of patients who break a hip eventually recover most of their ability to function, a broken hip in an older patient can mean a permanent loss of independence.

Geriatric Palliative Care 5/18/2007

It has been said that disease is a confrontation, a triumph over which is merely a reprieve from the inevitable end.

Pain Assessment in the Elderly 5/18/2007

In 1999, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) introduced new pain management standards.

Chronic and Acute Effects of Sun Exposure on the Skin 4/17/2007

In the United States, the most common types of cancer are those affecting the skin, and most skin cancers occur in the elderly population.

Future Technology for Warfarin Dosing 3/21/2007

Blood clotting is a very complicated process.

Rate Control in Atrial Fibrillation 2/20/2007

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common types of arrhrythmias.

Vision, Cognition, and Mobility Challenges for Elderly Drivers 1/23/2007

Compared with younger drivers, older drivers are less likely to drink and drive and to cause an accident resulting in a fatality.