MS manifests as neurologic signs and symptoms related to declining neuromuscular, sensory, and cognitive function, with a waxing and waning pattern of symptoms and/or continuous disease progression.
Recently updated guidelines have expanded the time window eligibility for treatment.
Approximately 30% of the population over 65 years of age is hearing impaired; ototoxic drugs are a common cause of hearing loss when taken regularly, especially in older adults.
This product, available commercially in other countries, has been reviewed for acute treatment of migraine and for episodic tension-type headache.
There is increasing evidence for the efficacy and safety of medical marijuana.
There are nine clearly defined types of muscular dystrophy, each differing in age of onset, clinical symptomology, muscle groups impacted, and associated complications.
Narcolepsy is a complex and often debilitating neurologic disease characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, uncontrollable sleep attacks, hypnagogic (drowsiness preceding sleep) and hypnopompic (semiconsciousness preceding waking) hallucinations, and sleep paralysis.
Combination products are more effective than any of the components alone in comparable doses.
Based upon disease etiology, this inflammatory condition is classified as typical or atypical.
For all such disorders, there are disparities between men and women in terms of prevalence.
There are many reasons for the occurrence of cognitive impairment in patients during hospitalization, and this impairment can have a long-term impact post discharge.
Data are limited regarding which therapy most effectively entrains the circadian rhythm.
Status epilepticus is a neurologic disorder that can lead to serious complications in children if it is not treated effectively.
Clinicians have relied on short-term use of these high-risk agents for insomnia in the elderly.
Self-help techniques may provide some relief from symptoms such as shaking.
Caused by repetitive pressure on the median nerve, this is a leading cause of work-related disability.
Mental health disorders are frequently seen in patients with Parkinson’s disease, possibly as a result of the complex imbalance of neurotransmitters in both disease states.
Cannabis, the substance more commonly known as marijuana, has gained interest in recent years for its potential use as an antiepileptic agent.
People suffering from narcolepsy have an overwhelming need to sleep, often several times during the day.
Despite the benefits of consistent CPAP therapy, adherence remains a challenge.
In children, the identification of migraines can
be particularly problematic, since symptoms can present in a variety of
ways that differ considerably from those occurring in adults.
These injuries require a comprehensive approach to
pharmacologic treatment in the acute setting.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often
thought of as a disorder of childhood, but approximately one-half of
individuals who exhibit ADHD early in life will go on to have persistent
symptoms into adulthood.
Hormonal contraception can have a bidirectional interaction with some
antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which can lead to loss of seizure control
Along with awareness of the improved health outcomes resulting from
drug therapy comes the recognition that drug therapy may also contribute
to the emergence of new disorders.
This heterogeneous condition with several variant forms is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis.
Repetitive brain trauma is associated
with progressive neurologic deterioration in some individuals; later
stages of disease are associated with dementia.
The use of blood products and other therapies for acute management and reversal is explored.
Spasticity may occur to some degree in most people
secondary to a disorder or trauma, such as spinal cord injury, traumatic
brain injury, cerebral palsy, stroke, or multiple sclerosis.
Tardive dyskinesia is a drug-induced movement disorder
characterized by the presence of abnormal involuntary movements.1-3
A transient ischemic attack is caused by a brief, temporary blockage of blood flow to part of the brain.
Patients with this movement disorder feel an urgent need to move their legs to stop unpleasant sensations.
Behavioral side effects associated with antiepileptic drugs frequently are overlooked, but are an
Hydrocephalus is caused by a variety of
disorders and disease states, thus making it complex to define and
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), a range of complex
neurodevelopmental disabilities, are characterized by social impairment
and communication difficulties that are apparent in young children.
Drug therapy is based on type of seizure, age, gender, comorbidities, adverse-effect potential, drug interactions, and cost.
Generalized convulsive status epilepticus, a neurologic
emergency requiring immediate medical attention, has a reported fatality
rate of up to 30% to 40% after diagnosis.
Pharmacists should watch out for troubling symptoms such as dizziness or hearing loss in patients.
Developmental disorders are marked by significant social, communication, and behavioral impairments.
that have been investigated for migraine prophylaxis include
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans,
antidepressants, opioids, antiepileptic drugs, antiemetics, and
Achieving cerebral reperfusion within 90 minutes of a stroke event is optimal.
The last several decades have seen a significant rise in the use of
Advancing age is an independent risk factor for fainting.
Associations between shift work disorder and cancer, coronary artery
disease, and gastrointestinal disturbances have been established.
Bell’s palsy is an acute unilateral peripheral paralysis or weakness of
the face that may lead to permanent disfigurement to the affected side
of the face.
Movement disorders secondary to central nervous system disease and skeletal-muscle overactivity can be extremely debilitating.
Chronic use of certain drugs can cause this rheumatologic syndrome
Pharmacists can help patients recognize whether this may be more serious than transient discomfort.
Research is focused on disease-modifying therapies.
For many neurodegenerative disorders, health risks increase in the aging population, posing social and economic challenges.
Tremor occurs most frequently in the hands, but it may also involve other parts of the body.
The active ingredient in turmeric may be effective in preventing and treating Alzheimer's disease.
Essential tremor is an involuntary movement disorder of unknown cause that lacks a specific set of diagnostic criteria.
The loss of smell (anosmia
) is not a serious disorder, but it can significantly affect one's quality of life.
According to the CDC, defects of the spine (spina bifida
) and brain (anencephaly
) are common neural tube defects.
Prompt identification of the underlying causes of a fainting spell is
essential in determining prognosis and treatment strategies.
Excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis are typical symptoms of this disorder.
Pharmacologic therapy should be utilized for the shortest duration possible to minimize dependence and adverse effects.
Insomnia is a common complaint in hospitalized patients, especially the elderly.
A relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia is
undeniable, with numerous studies concluding that DM increases the risk
of cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.
A major goal of therapy for patients who have experienced stroke is to
prevent recurrent stroke and other outcomes, such as fatal and nonfatal
This functional brain-gut disorder is characterized by recurrent severe
prolonged episodes of nausea and vomiting in otherwise healthy people.
is defined as meningeal inflammation that persists for more than 4 weeks.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, oral steroids, and
injectable corticosteroids are pharmacologic therapies used to treat
this painful condition.
Early identification of functional difficulties and initiation of relevant therapies and services can help lessen detrimental effects on a child's development.
To allay symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, therapy should include both a psychosocial component and medication.
Difficulty looking up without extending the neck or trouble climbing up and down stairs are some of the Parkinson's-like symptoms may signal this debilitating condition.
Clear guidelines for the proper administration of drugs used to treat this condition are lacking.
Among the possible sources of meningeal inflammation are viral or bacterial infection and brain injury or surgery.
Patients with this progressive, fatal neurologic disorder may need
more drug therapy for symptom management than is required for most
Insomnia is a common but often underdiagnosed complaint in the elderly population.
Some patients continue to experience seizures despite trials with multiple antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacists can play a significant role in the management of individual drug therapy and subsequently improve patient outcomes.
The increase in outpatient visits in the past decade is attributed to the aging of the American population and a resultant rise in prescription drug utilization.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder of the
central nervous system. It is characterized by an irresistible urge or
need to move the limbs that occurs as a result of uncomfortable limb
Pharmacists are often approached by patients
who request assistance when choosing a headache medicine.
Adverse drug reactions are a potential problem with all medications.
FDA Modifies Prescribing Information for Contraceptive Skin Patch The FDA issued a notice that it modified the prescribing information for the Ortho Evra Contraceptive Transdermal Patch to include the results of a new epidemiological study that found women who used the birth control patch were at a higher risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) than those who used birth control pills.
A variety of neurologic conditions present more often in individuals of advancing age.
Football players can get a concussion regardless of the level of play or how hard they are hit.
Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of childhood disability.
Researchers at Duke University and the University of Michigan report that approximately 14% of Americans age 71 and older have some form of dementia.
It is estimated that 10 to 20 million Americans suffer from neuropathy.
While the overall incidence of lead poisoning has decreased, it is still prevalent.
DIMDs remain a significant burden among certain patient populations, such as those receiving treatment with dopamine receptorÒblocking agents (DRBAs; e.
If you think that having money causes more headaches, think again.
Researchers attending a recent Associated Professional Sleep Societies Meeting reported that four out of 10 police officers may be working with a variety of sleep problems, including sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, or narcolepsy.
Sciatica is a common form of back and leg pain that results from compression of the sciatic nerve, a large nerve that runs from the lower spine behind the hip joint and down the back of each leg.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a neurologic condition that is considered vastly underdiagnosed, as it typically induces symptoms similar to those seen in other forms of dementia.