Hydrocephalus is caused by a variety of
disorders and disease states, thus making it complex to define and
Lowering body temperature after cardiac arrest has been show to improve morbidity and mortality
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), a range of complex
neurodevelopmental disabilities, are characterized by social impairment
and communication difficulties that are apparent in young children.
Drug therapy is based on type of seizure, age, gender, comorbidities, adverse-effect potential, drug interactions, and cost.
Generalized convulsive status epilepticus, a neurologic
emergency requiring immediate medical attention, has a reported fatality
rate of up to 30% to 40% after diagnosis.
Developmental disorders are marked by significant social, communication, and behavioral impairments.
that have been investigated for migraine prophylaxis include
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, triptans,
antidepressants, opioids, antiepileptic drugs, antiemetics, and
Achieving cerebral reperfusion within 90 minutes of a stroke event is optimal.
The prevalence of depression is significantly higher in epilepsy
patients than in the general population.
Various types of trauma can result in nerve injury, a significant cause of functional morbidity.
Hormonal changes from menarche through adulthood affect the intensity
and timing of migraine attacks in females.
The last several decades have seen a significant rise in the use of
The use of pharmacologic agents focuses on alleviating behavioral symptoms.
Advancing age is an independent risk factor for fainting.
Pharmacologic therapy for stroke may be divided into stroke-specific treatment and stroke prevention.
Associations between shift work disorder and cancer, coronary artery
disease, and gastrointestinal disturbances have been established.
Bell’s palsy is an acute unilateral peripheral paralysis or weakness of
the face that may lead to permanent disfigurement to the affected side
of the face.
Movement disorders secondary to central nervous system disease and skeletal-muscle overactivity can be extremely debilitating.
Sleep disturbance is a common complaint in patients suffering from GERD
Chronic use of certain drugs can cause this rheumatologic syndrome
Pharmacists can help patients recognize whether this may be more serious than transient discomfort.
Research is focused on disease-modifying therapies.
Despite the availability of effective antiretroviral therapy, more
than 25% of people with HIV infection will develop neurologic
For many neurodegenerative disorders, health risks increase in the aging population, posing social and economic challenges.
Tremor occurs most frequently in the hands, but it may also involve other parts of the body.
The active ingredient in turmeric may be effective in preventing and treating Alzheimer's disease.
Some patients, particularly the elderly, have persistent or
recurrent pain in the involved nerve distribution that may be permanent
Typically thought of as a type of childhood seizure disorder, absence
seizures also may present in older populations or as a component of
multiple other epileptic disorders.
Essential tremor is an involuntary movement disorder of unknown cause that lacks a specific set of diagnostic criteria.
Although no medications are available that can reverse the progress of Alzheimer's disease, a number of drugs have limited utility in treating cognitive
The loss of smell (anosmia
) is not a serious disorder, but it can significantly affect one's quality of life.
According to the CDC, defects of the spine (spina bifida
) and brain (anencephaly
) are common neural tube defects.
Prompt identification of the underlying causes of a fainting spell is
essential in determining prognosis and treatment strategies.
Excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hallucinations, and sleep paralysis are typical symptoms of this disorder.
Pharmacologic therapy should be utilized for the shortest duration possible to minimize dependence and adverse effects.
This form may be used by patients unable to take the oral solid form of this anticonvulsant.
Insomnia is a common complaint in hospitalized patients, especially the elderly.
In the United States alone, nearly 30 million people suffer from migraines, and the numbers are on the rise.
A relationship between diabetes mellitus (DM) and dementia is
undeniable, with numerous studies concluding that DM increases the risk
of cognitive decline and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease.
A major goal of therapy for patients who have experienced stroke is to
prevent recurrent stroke and other outcomes, such as fatal and nonfatal
The abnormal protein deposits found in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease may be involved in the loss of cognitive function that characterizes the disorder.
Among others, bupropion, tramadol, and venlafaxine are reported as potential risks in this patient population.
This functional brain-gut disorder is characterized by recurrent severe
prolonged episodes of nausea and vomiting in otherwise healthy people.
is defined as meningeal inflammation that persists for more than 4 weeks.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, oral steroids, and
injectable corticosteroids are pharmacologic therapies used to treat
this painful condition.
Early identification of functional difficulties and initiation of relevant therapies and services can help lessen detrimental effects on a child's development.
To allay symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, therapy should include both a psychosocial component and medication.
Vascular dementia is impairment of memory and cognitive functioning that is caused by cerebrovascular disease.
Difficulty looking up without extending the neck or trouble climbing up and down stairs are some of the Parkinson's-like symptoms may signal this debilitating condition.
Clear guidelines for the proper administration of drugs used to treat this condition are lacking.
Among the possible sources of meningeal inflammation are viral or bacterial infection and brain injury or surgery.
Patients with this progressive, fatal neurologic disorder may need
more drug therapy for symptom management than is required for most
Insomnia is a common but often underdiagnosed complaint in the elderly population.
The absence of well-defined criteria for the diagnosis of this nervous
system condition has resulted in a lack of randomized controlled trials
and specific treatments.
Some patients continue to experience seizures despite trials with multiple antiepileptic drugs. Pharmacists can play a significant role in the management of individual drug therapy and subsequently improve patient outcomes.
The increase in outpatient visits in the past decade is attributed to the aging of the American population and a resultant rise in prescription drug utilization.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder of the
central nervous system. It is characterized by an irresistible urge or
need to move the limbs that occurs as a result of uncomfortable limb
Pharmacists are often approached by patients
who request assistance when choosing a headache medicine.
Adverse drug reactions are a potential problem with all medications.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattentiveness, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity and represents a common behavioral disorder of childhood.
FDA Modifies Prescribing Information for Contraceptive Skin Patch The FDA issued a notice that it modified the prescribing information for the Ortho Evra Contraceptive Transdermal Patch to include the results of a new epidemiological study that found women who used the birth control patch were at a higher risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) than those who used birth control pills.
A variety of neurologic conditions present more often in individuals of advancing age.
Football players can get a concussion regardless of the level of play or how hard they are hit.
Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of childhood disability.
Researchers at Duke University and the University of Michigan report that approximately 14% of Americans age 71 and older have some form of dementia.
It is estimated that 10 to 20 million Americans suffer from neuropathy.
While the overall incidence of lead poisoning has decreased, it is still prevalent.
Autistic disorder (AD) is one of the great modern medical mysteries; the cause of the condition is unknown, and, despite significant research, no cure is available.
DIMDs remain a significant burden among certain patient populations, such as those receiving treatment with dopamine receptorÒblocking agents (DRBAs; e.
If you think that having money causes more headaches, think again.
Researchers attending a recent Associated Professional Sleep Societies Meeting reported that four out of 10 police officers may be working with a variety of sleep problems, including sleep apnea, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, or narcolepsy.
Central pain is defined as pain associated with lesions of the central nervous system that lead to damage of somatosensory pathways.
Chronic pain--pain that lasts longer than three to six months--affects over 75 million Americans, making it one of the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States today.
Sciatica is a common form of back and leg pain that results from compression of the sciatic nerve, a large nerve that runs from the lower spine behind the hip joint and down the back of each leg.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a neurologic condition that is considered vastly underdiagnosed, as it typically induces symptoms similar to those seen in other forms of dementia.