Over the last several decades, the assessment and treatment of pain in children has become a standard of pediatric care.
This technology is an encouraging step forward in drug delivery and formulation design.
Although there is no cure, treatment can help relieve symptoms and minimize the long-term impact of this chronic disorder of the inner ear.
It is imperative to recognize the signs of an overdose and administer an antidote quickly.
PLMD and RLS may interrupt sleep and may contribute to pain in seniors; drug-induced causes should be minimized or eliminated.
Personalized medicine allows healthcare professionals to dose patients appropriately.
PHN is a painful nerve condition that lingers after a shingles (herpes zoster) infection.
The Institute of Medicine reported that 33% of Americans (116 million) have chronic pain.
An increasingly popular pain management strategy is the use of noncontrolled topical agents.
OTC options for osteoarthritis include thermotherapy and external and internal analgesics.
Recent research points to a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain.
Caused by repetitive pressure on the median nerve, this is a leading cause of work-related disability.
Endometriosis is a chronic, recurrent disease caused by the extrauterine presence of endometrial tissues.
Up to 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy with multiple agents experience nerve damage.
This agent may be an alternative for patients with pain severe enough to require around-the-clock, long-term opioid therapy when other options are inadequate.
These comorbid conditions can complicate the treatment of pain with opioid analgesics.
Overdose and misuse may lead to acute liver failure.
AKL can reduce burning levels in patients with radiation dermatitis–related neuropathic pain.
Nonselective NSAIDs have the lowest risk of cardiovascular events.
Epidural anesthetics are the most popular form of pain management
currently chosen by the patient during labor in the United States.
Pain may be under-recognized in patients who have cognitive or sensory impairments or difficulties with language or speech;
it is frequently undertreated in cognitively impaired patients.
This common type of arthritis results from the breakdown of the spongy cartilage that cushions the joints.
Breakthrough pain is a common issue incurred by oncology patients.
Proper assessment of pain in elderly patients is challenging.
According to the Drug Abuse Warning Network, a public-health
surveillance system, 49% of the 5.1 million drug-related emergency room visits made in 2011 were
attributed to pharmaceutical misuse or abuse and illicit
Most types of headaches can be treated with nonprescription analgesics.
anesthetic agent for ECT should have a rapid onset of action and short recovery
The chronic systemic inflammatory
response associated with rheumatoid arthritis affects most joints and their surrounding
Dysmenorrhea is the most common menstrual complaint in the United
States, impacting more than 50% of women over the course of their
It is imperative to recognize risk
factors and signs of overdose, as well as understand pharmacologic management strategies.
Degenerative changes of the cervical spine, associated with chronic neck pain
and stiffness, have a strong association with aging.
Although it is not entirely clear why
diabetes causes nerve damage, it is thought to be a result of poorly
controlled blood glucose over a long period of time.
The number of emergency
department visits linked to nonmedical use of prescription pain
relievers nearly doubled between 2004 and 2009.
The option to self-administer pain medication is often not offered to the elderly.
Approximately 60% to 80% of amputees
develop this debilitating condition, which is often misdiagnosed.
Treatment involves managing hyperuricemia with urate-lowering therapy.
Knowing when to self-treat and when to refer pain complaints is important.
Major reasons for
discontinuing opioid medications are gastrointestinal side effects
such as nausea, vomiting, and constipation.
Various types of trauma can result in nerve injury, a significant cause of functional morbidity.
For optimal treatment, clinicians should implement
the most conservative therapies to prevent unnecessary additional risks
Various drugs are used to induce labor and manage pain during delivery.
This high-risk preparation is suitable for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain.
There may be an association between low levels of vitamin D and various pain syndromes.
This complex inflammatory condition of unknown cause is treated most effectively with oral corticosteroids.
Cancer pain affects one in three patients and significantly impacts quality of life.
Management of chronic
pain with medications such as opioids is a common strategy, but chronic
pain can persist or worsen despite aggressive opioid therapy.
Familiarity with exercise and pain
management guidelines can help direct pharmacists’ clinical
recommendations for senior patients.
According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and
Stroke, more than nine in 10 adults will experience pain at some point.
A pain medication should be chosen based on the type of pain being treated and the patient's individual health profile
Topical medications are often prescribed to alleviate inflammation from an eye injury.
Male circumcision is a common surgical procedure performed in
neonates, generally for religious or cultural reasons.
A multidisciplinary approach is essential, with a focus on the entire body rather than just the affected joint.
Product shortages and lack of availability may render it necessary for the pharmacist to compound a suitable alternative.
Common causes of tendon pain rarely have an inflammatory component.
National Center for Health Statistics data show that 61% of women received epidural or spinal anesthesia during first-order birth.
This compound contains six active ingredients with varying mechanisms of pain relief.
Premenstrual pain and cramping can be treated with nonprescription analgesics.
One of the most feared sports and work injuries is a torn anterior cruciate ligament.
This disorder usually results from pressure and repetitive trauma; infection is a less common cause.
Patients with orofacial neuropathic pain can benefit from this preparation.
These types of cases constitute the two most common reasons for emergency room visits.
Chest pain is a common occurrence in primary, acute, and urgent care
settings, and it is one of the most cited reasons for which people seek
In both opioid resistance and neuropathic pain, these agents may be an option.
The prescribing of opioids has been associated with apprehension and
contentious debate in the health care community, which has created
barriers to achieving adequate pain relief.
Professionals facilitate and guide, rather than dictate, treatment.
This product warms up as it is smoothed into the skin, which may render it more viscous and rub-resistant.
This formulation provides relief for sore muscles and mild-to-moderate joint pain.
Patients with mild-to-moderate neuropathic pain can benefit from treatment with this product.
It is important for pharmacists to be able to assess whether an injury
is self-treatable or if a referral is required.
When a product is discontinued for economic reasons and is no longer available, it still may be prescribed through compounding.
New clinical practice guideline emphasizes careful patient selection and appropriate and continuous monitoring.
Data for safely switching from an oral fentanyl product to a nonfentanyl
opioid are lacking.
This procedure is one component of therapy for chronic pain caused by spinal nerve irritation.
In the United States alone, nearly 30 million people suffer from migraines, and the numbers are on the rise.
Peripheral nerve injury is often caused by a microvascular
complication of diabetes.
OTC treatments for this common condition include oral medications,
topical external analgesic products, and thermotherapy.
Better control of pain is a primary concern for patients undergoing surgical procedures.
IVib and ketorolac tromethamine offer an effective alternative to
opioids for acute pain management.
One-quarter of sufferers are
treated for their chronic pain, whereas 40% do not seek professional
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, oral steroids, and
injectable corticosteroids are pharmacologic therapies used to treat
this painful condition.
In lozenge form, this analgesic and anesthetic agent can be prepared to suit the patient's individual flavor preference.
This chronic pain syndrome is seven times more common in women than in men.
The many uses of this chemical compound include relieving the pain of arthritis, psoriasis, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia caused by shingles.
Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for this inflammatory disease, which afflicts older adults and produces a sudden onset of painful symptoms in the neck, shoulders, back, and hips.
Surgery to repair an injured or diseased knee joint is known as total knee replacement or total knee arthroplasty.
Pharmacists may help caregivers provide appropriate
care by educating them on the use of pain scales and observational
According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the share of
total personal health care expenditures attributed to hospital care
declined (from 40% in 1980 to 31% in 2005) and prescription drug
expenditures doubled (from 5% to 10%).
Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by chronic muscle and joint
pain, extreme fatigue, and tenderness in certain areas of the body.
As pharmacists, the primary goal of evaluating the impact of
medications on massage therapy, and vice-versa, is based on safety
OTC products are recommended for a wide variety of minor aches and pains, making it a complex market for the average patient.
The arrival of newer investigational agents that treat hyperuricemia
and inflammatory arthritis has prompted clinicians to maximize
Chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent conditions whose symptoms overlap.
The absence of well-defined criteria for the diagnosis of this nervous
system condition has resulted in a lack of randomized controlled trials
and specific treatments.
Although types of topical anesthetics have not changed considerably
over the last few decades, several advances have been made in the
technologies available for drug delivery.
The characteristics of individuals 18 years of age and older in 2006 who suffered from lower-back pain (27...
Each year, approximately 3.6 million outpatient visits in the United States are attributed to low back pain (LBP).
Seldom do patients in the acute-care setting present with the sole issue of pain management...
Approximately 36 million Americans use OTC pain medications daily...
There are numerous consequences of persistent pain in older adults ( TABLE 1 )...
When it comes to treating inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, taking more than one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) could lead to complications beyond the common gastrointestinal side effects associated with some NSAID products.
The FDA said that it would take enforcement action against companies marketing unapproved injectable colchicine, used to treat gout. Colchicine is a highly toxic drug, especially when given intravenously, and the FDA is aware of 50 reports of adverse events connected to intravenous colchicine, including 23 deaths.
Over the past two decades, pain assessment and management in children has greatly improved due in part to the development of age-specific pain assessment tools and a better understanding of the role of analgesics in this population.
Cocaine is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs, and its abuse is a widespread problem in the United States and around the world.
Individuals with chronic pain that lasts for more than three to six months may experience multiple types of pain in the head and neck region, including headache and facial pain.
Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are the most common type of facial pain condition, affecting approximately 10% to 12% of the population, with about 25% of individuals having at least one TMD episode during their lifetime.
It is estimated that 10 to 20 million Americans suffer from neuropathy.
While studies are still being conducted linking smoking marijuana to pain relief, an article in Anesthesiology reports that the benefit that smoking marijuana may have on pain relief depends on a narrow therapeutic dosing window.
A German study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine claims that six months of acupuncture appears to be more effective than conventional therapy in treating low back pain.
ED Drugs May Have Other Benefits Studies recently presented at the American Urological Association meeting point to the fact that type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) may be effective against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms.
Pain is a common and often undertreated phenomenon in patients 65 and older that is often attributed to physical injuries and trauma or may stem from a range of disease states.
Central pain is defined as pain associated with lesions of the central nervous system that lead to damage of somatosensory pathways.
It has been said that disease is a confrontation, a triumph over which is merely a reprieve from the inevitable end.
A recent Google search on the word pain produced an astounding 190 million hits--a daunting amount of data for just about anyone to navigate , let alone harried physicians or pharmacists.
Millions of people in the United States undergo surgery or are injured each year.
Chronic pain--pain that lasts longer than three to six months--affects over 75 million Americans, making it one of the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States today.
In 1999, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) introduced new pain management standards.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most perplexing and debilitating disorders facing health care professionals involved with pain management.
Pharmacists frequently consult with patients who experience dental pain.
Sciatica is a common form of back and leg pain that results from compression of the sciatic nerve, a large nerve that runs from the lower spine behind the hip joint and down the back of each leg.
Does the following describe your job as a pharmacist? Light work and physical demands involving occasional lifting of five to 15 pounds, sitting 5%, standing 50%, walking 25%, bending 10%, and reaching 10%.
Pharmacists are in a unique position within the health care community.
Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain that is more severe in the morning but becomes less painful as the day continues. This condition occurs due to tiny tears in the plantar fascia—the piece of fibrous tissue connecting the heel to the base of the foot.