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AIDS Patients at Risk for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Ocular Diseases in HIV Infection

HIV ocular infections are becoming more common as HIV/AIDS continues to transition to a chronic disease.

Antimicrobial Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

Antibiotic resistance and the risk of fatal adverse events make it challenging to select an agent.

Drug-Induced Urinary Incontinence

A number of medications have been proposed as possible causes of drug-induced urinary incontinence, including alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and hormone replacement therapy.

Onychomycosis: Clinical Considerations and Recommendations

Often viewed as a purely cosmetic issue, nail fungus may lead to complications and should be treated.

Blood-Clotting Disorders Linked to Abuse-Deterrent Formula 6/23/2015

Assessment and Treatment of Pain in Children 5/15/2015

Over the last several decades, the assessment and treatment of pain in children has become a standard of pediatric care.

Antidepressants Show Potential for Postoperative Pain 3/18/2015

Increased Depression With Higher Opioid Doses 3/18/2015

Liposomal Bupivacaine: A New Option for Postoperative Pain 3/18/2015

This technology is an encouraging step forward in drug delivery and formulation design.

Meniere’s Disease: Treatment Strategies 3/18/2015

Although there is no cure, treatment can help relieve symptoms and minimize the long-term impact of this chronic disorder of the inner ear.

Most Patients With CKD May Have Long-Term Pain 3/18/2015

New System Predicts Risk of Chronic Pain After Surgery 3/18/2015

Opioid Overdose Rescue Kits 3/18/2015

It is imperative to recognize the signs of an overdose and administer an antidote quickly.

Periodic Limb Movement Disorder, Restless Legs Syndrome, and Pain 3/18/2015

PLMD and RLS may interrupt sleep and may contribute to pain in seniors; drug-induced causes should be minimized or eliminated.

Pharmacogenetic Testing and Opioids 3/18/2015

Personalized medicine allows healthcare professionals to dose patients appropriately.

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Postherpetic Neuralgia 3/18/2015

PHN is a painful nerve condition that lingers after a shingles (herpes zoster) infection.

Prevalence of Pain and Pain-Reliever Use 3/18/2015

The Institute of Medicine reported that 33% of Americans (116 million) have chronic pain.

Study of Twins Looks at Link Between Back Pain and Depression 3/18/2015

Topical Therapies for Chronic Pain Management: A Review of Diclofenac and Lidocaine 3/18/2015

An increasingly popular pain management strategy is the use of noncontrolled topical agents.

Treating Arthritis With Nonprescription Products and Devices 3/18/2015

OTC options for osteoarthritis include thermotherapy and external and internal analgesics.

Vitamin D Supplementation for Pain 3/18/2015

Recent research points to a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and chronic pain.

New Compound That Treats Neuropathic Pain Found 3/16/2015

Possible New Treatment for Opioid-Tolerant Patients 3/16/2015

Analgesic Drugs Could Be Used for Neuropathic Pain 3/16/2015

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Compressive Neuropathy 1/21/2015

Caused by repetitive pressure on the median nerve, this is a leading cause of work-related disability.

Drug Therapy for Endometriosis-Associated Pain 1/21/2015

Endometriosis is a chronic, recurrent disease caused by the extrauterine presence of endometrial tissues.

Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy 1/21/2015

Up to 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy with multiple agents experience nerve damage.

Buprenorphine Transdermal Patch: An Overview for Use in Chronic Pain 10/16/2014

This agent may be an alternative for patients with pain severe enough to require around-the-clock, long-term opioid therapy when other options are inadequate.

Acetaminophen Found Ineffective for Back Pain 8/20/2014

Opioid Dosing in Renal and Hepatic Impairment 8/20/2014

These comorbid conditions can complicate the treatment of pain with opioid analgesics.

Acetaminophen Toxicity: What Pharmacists Need to Know 3/19/2014

Overdose and misuse may lead to acute liver failure.

Amitriptyline HCl 2%, Ketamine HCl 1%, and Lidocaine HCl 5% in PLO Gel 3/19/2014

AKL can reduce burning levels in patients with radiation dermatitis–related neuropathic pain.

Cardiovascular Risk Associated With NSAIDs and COX-2 Inhibitors 3/19/2014

Nonselective NSAIDs have the lowest risk of cardiovascular events.

Epidural Anesthesia During Labor and Delivery 3/19/2014

Epidural anesthetics are the most popular form of pain management currently chosen by the patient during labor in the United States.

Metrics to Define and Measure Quality Pain Management 3/19/2014

Pain may be under-recognized in patients who have cognitive or sensory impairments or difficulties with language or speech; it is frequently undertreated in cognitively impaired patients.

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Osteoarthritis 3/19/2014

This common type of arthritis results from the breakdown of the spongy cartilage that cushions the joints.

Overview of Adult Outpatient Cancer Pain Management 3/19/2014

Breakthrough pain is a common issue incurred by oncology patients.

Pain Management in Dementia 3/19/2014

Proper assessment of pain in elderly patients is challenging.

Prescription Pain Medication Overdoses in the United States 3/19/2014

According to the Drug Abuse Warning Network, a public-health surveillance system, 49% of the 5.1 million drug-related emergency room visits made in 2011 were attributed to pharmaceutical misuse or abuse and illicit drugs.

Safe Self-Treatment of Headaches 3/19/2014

Most types of headaches can be treated with nonprescription analgesics.

Comparison of Methohexital and Propofol Anesthesia in Electroconvulsive Therapy: The Ideal Agent 2/19/2014

The ideal anesthetic agent for ECT should have a rapid onset of action and short recovery time.

Prescribing of High-Dose Acetaminophen Products Discouraged 2/19/2014

Pure Hydrocodone Product Approved 12/18/2013

Update on Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Rheumatoid Arthritis 10/18/2013

The chronic systemic inflammatory response associated with rheumatoid arthritis affects most joints and their surrounding tissues.

The Management of Primary Dysmenorrhea 9/18/2013

Dysmenorrhea is the most common menstrual complaint in the United States, impacting more than 50% of women over the course of their lifetime.

Opioid Overdose: What Hospital Pharmacists Should Know 4/19/2013

It is imperative to recognize risk factors and signs of overdose, as well as understand pharmacologic management strategies.

Cervical Spondylosis: Neck Pain, Stiffness, and Associated Features 3/20/2013

Degenerative changes of the cervical spine, associated with chronic neck pain  

and stiffness, have a strong association with aging.

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Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy 3/20/2013

Although it is not entirely clear why diabetes causes nerve damage, it is thought to be a result of poorly controlled blood glucose over a long period of time.

Nonmedical Use of Pain Relievers 3/20/2013

The number of emergency department visits linked to nonmedical use of prescription pain relievers nearly doubled between 2004 and 2009.

Patient-Controlled Analgesia and the Older Patient 3/20/2013

The option to self-administer pain medication is often not offered to the elderly.

Phantom Limb Pain: Current and Emerging Treatments 3/20/2013

Approximately 60% to 80% of amputees develop this debilitating condition, which is often misdiagnosed.

Pharmacologic Management of Gout 3/20/2013

Treatment involves managing hyperuricemia with urate-lowering therapy.

Sensory Organ Pain: Eye, Ear, Oral, Dental, and Throat Pain 3/20/2013

Knowing when to self-treat and when to refer pain complaints is important.

Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Opioid Analgesics 12/19/2012

Major reasons for discontinuing opioid medications are gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and constipation.

Management of Nerve Injuries 10/19/2012

Various types of trauma can result in nerve injury, a significant cause of functional morbidity.

Optimal Treatment for Interstitial Cystitis 9/19/2012

For optimal treatment, clinicians should implement the most conservative therapies to prevent unnecessary additional risks for patients.

Pharmacologic Agents Used in Obstetrics 9/19/2012

Various drugs are used to induce labor and manage pain during delivery.

Risk of Death in Some Children From Postsurgical Codeine Use 9/19/2012

Fentanyl 50 mcg/mL Injection 8/21/2012

This high-risk preparation is suitable for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain.

Vitamin D and Chronic Pain: Promising Correlates 7/18/2012

There may be an association between low levels of vitamin D and various pain syndromes.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica: A Severe, Self-Limiting Disease 6/20/2012

This complex inflammatory condition of unknown cause is treated most effectively with oral corticosteroids.

Chronic Tumor-Related Pain 5/22/2012

Cancer pain affects one in three patients and significantly impacts quality of life.

Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia: An Emerging Treatment Challenge 5/22/2012

Management of chronic pain with medications such as opioids is a common strategy, but chronic pain can persist or worsen despite aggressive opioid therapy.

Pain as a Barrier to Exercise for Successful Aging 5/22/2012

Familiarity with exercise and pain management guidelines can help direct pharmacists’ clinical recommendations for senior patients.

Selected Types of Chronic Pain Among Adults 5/22/2012

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, more than nine in 10 adults will experience pain at some point.

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Selecting the Right OTC Pain Medication 5/22/2012

A pain medication should be chosen based on the type of pain being treated and the patient's individual health profile

The Pharmacist’s Role in Managing Pain Associated With Ocular Trauma 5/22/2012

Topical medications are often prescribed to alleviate inflammation from an eye injury.

Drug Therapy Considerations in Circumcision 3/20/2012

Male circumcision is a common surgical procedure performed in neonates, generally for religious or cultural reasons.

Maintenance Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis 10/19/2011

A multidisciplinary approach is essential, with a focus on the entire body rather than just the affected joint. 

Oxycodone Hydrochloride 1 mg/mL Oral Liquid 10/19/2011

Product shortages and lack of availability may render it necessary for the pharmacist to compound a suitable alternative.

Tendinitis: A Misnomer? 10/19/2011

Common causes of tendon pain rarely have an inflammatory component. 

Trends in Epidural or Spinal Anesthesia Use 9/20/2011

National Center for Health Statistics data show that 61% of women received epidural or spinal anesthesia during first-order birth.

Antirheumatic Ointment 7/20/2011

This compound contains six active ingredients with varying mechanisms of pain relief.

Alleviating Menstrual Discomfort: PMS and Dysmenorrhea 5/18/2011

Premenstrual pain and cramping can be treated with nonprescription analgesics. 

Blowing Out Your Knee: ACL Tear and Pain Management 5/18/2011

One of the most feared sports and work injuries is a torn anterior cruciate ligament. 

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Bursitis 5/18/2011

This disorder usually results from pressure and repetitive trauma; infection is a less common cause.

Capsaicin 0.05% and Ketamine HCl 2% in Pluronic Lecithin Organogel 5/18/2011

Patients with orofacial neuropathic pain can benefit from this preparation.

Chest and Abdominal Pain Among Emergency Department Patients 5/18/2011

These types of cases constitute the two most common reasons for emergency room visits.

Evaluating and Treating Chest Pain in the Acute Care Setting 5/18/2011

Chest pain is a common occurrence in primary, acute, and urgent care settings, and it is one of the most cited reasons for which people seek medical attention.

The Emerging Role of NMDA Antagonists in Pain Management 5/18/2011

In both opioid resistance and neuropathic pain, these agents may be an option. 

The Impact of REMS on Pain Management 5/18/2011

The prescribing of opioids has been associated with apprehension and contentious debate in the health care community, which has created barriers to achieving adequate pain relief.

Collaborative Patient Care for Seniors With Pain 1/20/2011

Professionals facilitate and guide, rather than dictate, treatment.

Training May Be Best Treatment for Tennis Elbow 1/20/2011

Baclofen 2%, Gabapentin 6%, and Clonidine Hydrochloride 0.1% in Pluronic Lecithin Organogel 11/17/2010

This product warms up as it is smoothed into the skin, which may render it more viscous and rub-resistant.

Piroxicam, Methyl Salicylate, Menthol, and Capsaicin Topical Gel 9/20/2010

This formulation provides relief for sore muscles and mild-to-moderate joint pain.

Amitriptyline Hydrochloride 2%, Carbamazepine 2%, and Ketoprofen 2% in Pluronic Lecithin Organogel 7/20/2010

Patients with mild-to-moderate neuropathic pain can benefit from treatment with this product.


Preventing and Treating Summer Sports Injuries 7/20/2010

It is important for pharmacists to be able to assess whether an injury is self-treatable or if a referral is required. 

Meperidine Hydrochloride and Promethazine Hydrochloride Capsules 6/17/2010

When a product is discontinued for economic reasons and is no longer available, it still may be prescribed through compounding.

Chronic Opioid Therapy for Noncancer Pain 5/20/2010

New clinical practice guideline emphasizes careful patient selection and appropriate and continuous monitoring.

Difficult-to-Dose Opioids and the Risk Evaluation Mitigation Strategy 5/20/2010

Data for safely switching from an oral fentanyl product to a nonfentanyl opioid are lacking. 

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Epidural Injection 5/20/2010

This procedure is one component of therapy for chronic pain caused by spinal nerve irritation.

Memantine for the Treatment of Migraine 5/20/2010

In the United States alone, nearly 30 million people suffer from migraines, and the numbers are on the rise.

Neuropathic Pain: A Review of Diabetic Neuropathy 5/20/2010

Peripheral nerve injury is often caused by a microvascular complication of diabetes. 

Self-Care Interventions for Back Pain 5/20/2010

OTC treatments for this common condition include oral medications, topical external analgesic products, and thermotherapy.

The Management of Acute Postoperative Pain 5/20/2010

Better control of pain is a primary concern for patients undergoing surgical procedures.

The Role of Parenteral NSAIDs in Postoperative Pain Control 5/20/2010

IVib and ketorolac tromethamine offer an effective alternative to opioids for acute pain management. 

Trends in Chronic Pain 5/20/2010

One-quarter of sufferers are treated for their chronic pain, whereas 40% do not seek professional assistance.

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Management of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 1/20/2010

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diuretics, oral steroids, and injectable corticosteroids are pharmacologic therapies used to treat this painful condition.

Ketamine Hydrochloride 10-mg Troches 11/19/2009

In lozenge form, this analgesic and anesthetic agent can be prepared to suit the patient's individual flavor preference.

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Recent Advances in the Treatment of Pain Associated With Fibromyalgia 9/21/2009

This chronic pain syndrome is seven times more common in women than in men.

Capsaicin: Risks and Benefits 7/20/2009

The many uses of this chemical compound include relieving the pain of arthritis, psoriasis, diabetic neuropathy, and postherpetic neuralgia caused by shingles.

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Polymyalgia Rheumatica 6/18/2009

Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy for this inflammatory disease, which afflicts older adults and produces a sudden onset of painful symptoms in the neck, shoulders, back, and hips.

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Knee Replacement Surgery 6/18/2009

Surgery to repair an injured or diseased knee joint is known as total knee replacement or total knee arthroplasty.

Assessing Pain in the Cognitively Impaired 5/19/2009

Pharmacists may help caregivers provide appropriate care by educating them on the use of pain scales and observational clues.

Drugs Used for Pain Relief 5/19/2009

According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the share of total personal health care expenditures attributed to hospital care declined (from 40% in 1980 to 31% in 2005) and prescription drug expenditures doubled (from 5% to 10%).

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Fibromyalgia 5/19/2009

Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by chronic muscle and joint pain, extreme fatigue, and tenderness in certain areas of the body.

Massage Therapy: Implications for Pharmaceutical Care 5/19/2009

As pharmacists, the primary goal of evaluating the impact of medications on massage therapy, and vice-versa, is based on safety concerns.

Recommending Analgesics for Common Conditions 5/19/2009

OTC products are recommended for a wide variety of minor aches and pains, making it a complex market for the average patient.

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The Diagnosis and Treatment of Gout 5/19/2009

The arrival of newer investigational agents that treat hyperuricemia and inflammatory arthritis has prompted clinicians to maximize therapeutic outcomes.

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The Use of Antidepressants for Chronic Pain 5/19/2009

Chronic pain and depression are highly prevalent conditions whose symptoms overlap.

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Understanding the Pharmacologic Therapy for Patients Afflicted With Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 5/19/2009

The absence of well-defined criteria for the diagnosis of this nervous system condition has resulted in a lack of randomized controlled trials and specific treatments.

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Topical Anesthesia Use in Children 3/18/2009

Although types of topical anesthetics have not changed considerably over the last few decades, several advances have been made in the technologies available for drug delivery.

Prevalence of Three Common Types of Pain in Adults 5/20/2008

The characteristics of individuals 18 years of age and older in 2006 who suffered from lower-back pain (27...

Management of Chronic Low Back Pain 5/20/2008

Each year, approximately 3.6 million outpatient visits in the United States are attributed to low back pain (LBP).

Management of Pain in Acute Illness 5/20/2008

Seldom do patients in the acute-care setting present with the sole issue of pain management...

Common Adverse Events and Interactions with OTC Pain Medications 5/20/2008

Approximately 36 million Americans use OTC pain medications daily...

Consequences of Persistent Pain 5/20/2008

There are numerous consequences of persistent pain in older adults ( TABLE 1 )...

More Is Not Better When Taking NSAIDs 3/20/2008

When it comes to treating inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, taking more than one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) could lead to complications beyond the common gastrointestinal side effects associated with some NSAID products.

FDA Curtails Marketing of Unapproved Injectable Colchicine 3/20/2008

The FDA said that it would take enforcement action against companies marketing unapproved injectable colchicine, used to treat gout. Colchicine is a highly toxic drug, especially when given intravenously, and the FDA is aware of 50 reports of adverse events connected to intravenous colchicine, including 23 deaths.

Management of Postoperative Pain in Children 3/20/2008

Over the past two decades, pain assessment and management in children has greatly improved due in part to the development of age-specific pain assessment tools and a better understanding of the role of analgesics in this population.

Cocaine-Related Chest Pain 2/20/2008

Cocaine is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs, and its abuse is a widespread problem in the United States and around the world.

Migraine: Its Recognition and Treatment 1/21/2008

Individuals with chronic pain that lasts for more than three to six months may experience multiple types of pain in the head and neck region, including headache and facial pain.

Temporomandibular Disorders: Review and Management 12/20/2007

Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are the most common type of facial pain condition, affecting approximately 10% to 12% of the population, with about 25% of individuals having at least one TMD episode during their lifetime.

The ReBuilder 12/20/2007

It is estimated that 10 to 20 million Americans suffer from neuropathy.

Dosing of Marijuana Important in Pain Relief 11/19/2007

While studies are still being conducted linking smoking marijuana to pain relief, an article in Anesthesiology reports that the benefit that smoking marijuana may have on pain relief depends on a narrow therapeutic dosing window.

Don't Dismiss Acupuncture as a Treatment for Lower Back Pain 10/18/2007

A German study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine claims that six months of acupuncture appears to be more effective than conventional therapy in treating low back pain.

Clinical News Digest 7/13/2007

ED Drugs May Have Other Benefits Studies recently presented at the American Urological Association meeting point to the fact that type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) may be effective against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms.

Principles of Pain Management in the Elderly 6/19/2007

Pain is a common and often undertreated phenomenon in patients 65 and older that is often attributed to physical injuries and trauma or may stem from a range of disease states.

Managing Central Pain Syndromes 5/18/2007

Central pain is defined as pain associated with lesions of the central nervous system that lead to damage of somatosensory pathways.

Geriatric Palliative Care 5/18/2007

It has been said that disease is a confrontation, a triumph over which is merely a reprieve from the inevitable end.

Taking the Pain Out of Pain Research 5/18/2007

A recent Google search on the word pain produced an astounding 190 million hits--a daunting amount of data for just about anyone to navigate , let alone harried physicians or pharmacists.

Acute Pain Pharmacotherapy 5/18/2007

Millions of people in the United States undergo surgery or are injured each year.

Chronic Pain Management 5/18/2007

Chronic pain--pain that lasts longer than three to six months--affects over 75 million Americans, making it one of the most common and debilitating health problems in the United States today.

Pain Assessment in the Elderly 5/18/2007

In 1999, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) introduced new pain management standards.

A Multidisciplinary Approach to Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 5/18/2007

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is one of the most perplexing and debilitating disorders facing health care professionals involved with pain management.

Dental Pain 5/18/2007

Pharmacists frequently consult with patients who experience dental pain.

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Sciatica 5/2/2007

Sciatica is a common form of back and leg pain that results from compression of the sciatic nerve, a large nerve that runs from the lower spine behind the hip joint and down the back of each leg.

Oh, My Aching Back! 4/17/2007

Does the following describe your job as a pharmacist? Light work and physical demands involving occasional lifting of five to 15 pounds, sitting 5%, standing 50%, walking 25%, bending 10%, and reaching 10%.

The Patient with Chest Pain 2/20/2007

Pharmacists are in a unique position within the health care community.

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Plantar Fasciitis 1/2/2007

Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of heel pain that is more severe in the morning but becomes less painful as the day continues. This condition occurs due to tiny tears in the plantar fascia—the piece of fibrous tissue connecting the heel to the base of the foot.