Second-generation antipsychotics are first-line agents for children and adolescents.
Irritable bowel syndrome is a common abdominal condition affecting children and adolescents.
Exposure can cause cognitive, behavioral, and motor problems in children.
The cause of adolescent obesity is regarded as multifaceted, given the numerous components that increase a child’s risk of developing the condition.
Asthma exacerbations often require a short course of oral steroids.
Pediatric patients with preexisting respiratory conditions are at the greatest risk of infection.
In 2012, more than 33% of children and adolescents were overweight or obese.
Data on key health indicators in children, such as birthweight,
breastfeeding, television viewing, smoking, and anemia, were collected
by the 2010 Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System
Several nonprescription products can be recommended for treatment of tinea corporis (ringworm).
Several methods for taking a child’s temperature quickly, accurately,
and safely are available.
Universal screening is recommended regardless of family history or risk factors.
Probiotics are active living microorganisms that have a defined
health benefit—either therapeutic or preventive—when ingested in
Routine vaccination has been very effective in reducing the incidence of chickenpox.
Appropriate IV antibiotics should be initiated upon diagnosis and postappendectomy.
This common, highly contagious skin infection is caused primarily by gram-positive bacteria.
Treatment of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal in teens mimics that of adults.
Compared with term infants, premature infants have higher rates of
morbidity and mortality, especially those who are extremely preterm.
Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder of childhood.
Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are available in several pediatric dosage forms to reduce fever.
Pharmacologic therapy generally consists of symptomatic treatment and supportive care.
Surveillance System data provide insights into overweight,
obesity, and anemia as health indicators in children.
The incidence of SIDS underwent a dramatic decrease between 1994 and
2001; since that time, however, it has reached a plateau, and SIDS
continues to be a significant cause of infant mortality.
Whooping cough begins with coldlike symptoms, including congestion,
sneezing, low-grade fever, and mild cough.
Because of safety
children, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines should continue to be limited to treatment of
FDA-approved indications or for infections for which no safe and
effective alternative exists.
This gastrointestinal disorder is on the rise in pediatric
patients of varying ages, making it a significant chronic disease in
The use of pharmacologic agents focuses on alleviating behavioral symptoms.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is an early childhood condition most commonly caused by the coxsackievirus.
Male circumcision is a common surgical procedure performed in
neonates, generally for religious or cultural reasons.
Two varicella vaccines are approved for use in children 12 months and older.
Aspirin is considered the most significant causative agent, although this link is often challenged.
Annually, approximately 6 to 12 million U.S. children aged 3 to 11
years become infested with head lice.
The World Health Organization estimates that more than 150 million
cases of pneumonia occur each year in children aged under 5 years.
Typically thought of as a type of childhood seizure disorder, absence
seizures also may present in older populations or as a component of
multiple other epileptic disorders.
Kawasaki disease—an acute, self-limiting vasculitis of childhood—is the
leading cause of acquired pediatric heart disease in North America.
increase in childhood obesity, considered an epidemic by many experts, represents a
major public health concern.
Children living in nonnuclear families are more likely to delay
getting prescription medication and to visit
an emergency room two or more times in a year.
Labeling for OTC cough and cold medications now states: “Do not use in children under 4 years of age.”
Drugs may be administered to pregnant patients to prevent or correct certain abnormalities in the fetus.
This common skin infection in children is caused by Staphylococcus
Although many patients can be treated with oral antibiotics, infants should be evaluated for IV antibiotic therapy.
Theopylline and caffeine are equally effective treatment modalities for
infants with this condition.
The proportion of children with special health care needs increased from 13% in 2001 to 14% in 2005–2006.
Growing resistance to many forms of treatment make this parasite hard
Otitis media is a common illness affecting both infants and
children, often multiple times during the first few years of life.
This remains a serious disease in developing countries that do not offer
the benefit of routine vaccination.
Education and provision of resources are necessary to help stem this growing problem among teens.
Frequently interrelated, unhealthy dietary behaviors and sedentary habits are established during
childhood and adolescence, according to the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.
Although there has been a general reluctance to use lipid-lowering drugs in the pediatric population, more evidence is becoming available that suggests effectiveness.
Although nonprescription products are of no use in treating this common childhood condition, the pharmacist should be prepared to answer the parent’s questions.
The pharmacist is on the front lines of pharmaceutical care when patients need assistance with minor health conditions.
Tobacco use among adolescents increases the risk of smoking-related disease and premature death (more than five million of today's adolescent smokers will die from tobacco-related disease)...
Tobacco use among adolescents increases the risk of smoking-related disease and premature death (more than five million of today's adolescent smokers will die from tobacco-related disease).
Each year, millions of infants and children require sedation and pain control for medical procedures.
A study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published online by the American Academy of Pediatrics revealed that an estimated 7,000 children ages 11 and younger are treated in hospital emergency departments each year because of cough and cold medications.
Over the past two decades, pain assessment and management in children has greatly improved due in part to the development of age-specific pain assessment tools and a better understanding of the role of analgesics in this population.
Croup is a swelling of the tissue around the larynx (voice box) and trachea (windpipe) that results in a tight, barking cough.
Researchers at Pennsylvania State University report in the online Journal of Pediatrics that by the time American children are four years old, they are generally deficient in the consumption of dairy products.
Autistic disorder (AD) is one of the great modern medical mysteries; the cause of the condition is unknown, and, despite significant research, no cure is available.
Despite improvements in the field of dentistry, dental decay remains the number one illness among children, surpassing asthma.
The notion of sitting a child who is 8 to 16 months old in front of a television to watch DVDs and videos to help develop language skills may be an urban myth according to researchers at the University of Washington, Seattle.
Allergic diseases are important causes of morbidity in the United States.