Drug-induced bleeding presents in many ways, including excessive bruising, nosebleeds, heavy menses, gastrointestinal bleeding, and rectal bleeding. Drug-induced bleeding is potentiated by numerous drugs, natural medicines, and drug-drug interactions. Pharmacists should be aware of patient-specific risk factors and should actively monitor for medications that contribute to bleeding. By minimizing the risk of drug-induced bleeding in patients, pharmacists have the opportunity to reduce long-term adverse effects. In addition, pharmacists can educate patients on ways to reduce the risk of drug-induced bleeding and help them recognize the symptoms of drug-induced bleeding. Read more.
Managing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in an Outpatient Setting
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that is triggered by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event involving the possibility of serious injury or death. Research demonstrates that cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most effective treatment for PTSD. The two types of CBT that are effective for PTSD are cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure therapy. If nonpharmacologic treatments fail to control symptoms of PTSD, the Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense clinical practice guideline and the American Psychiatric Association guideline recommend using medications in the treatment of PTSD. Both guidelines recommend selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors as first-line treatment. Read more.
Adverse Effects Associated With Newer Antihyperglycemic Agents
The therapeutic management options for type 2 diabetes mellitus have expanded notably over the last decade with the development of three new classes of medications. These classes are the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. The promising therapeutic benefits of these agents have led to their widespread use; however, the possibility of adverse effects ranging from pancreatitis to genitourinary infections warrants judicious selection based on considerations of patient-specific parameters. Pharmacists must work alongside other healthcare providers to mitigate adverse effects of these agents and to optimize the use of these medications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Read more.
High Vitamin D Doses Benefit Immune System in MS Patients
High doses of vitamin D3 appear to help multiple sclerosis patients regulate their hyperactive immune response without significant safety concerns. Read more.
When Is Nail Fungus Testing Cost Effective Before Treatment?
An analysis in JAMA Dermatology suggests it is more cost effective to treat all suspected cases of onychomycosis with the oral medication terbinafine than to perform confirmatory diagnostic tests. Read more.
Ketoacidosis Risk Added to Labels of SGLT2 Inhibitors for Type 2 Diabetes
Warnings are being added to the labels of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors about the risks of ketoacidosis and serious urinary tract infections, both of which can result in hospitalization. Read more.
Stroke Risks Increase With Alpha-Blockers in Older Men Untreated for Hypertension
When initiating alpha-blockers, older men have a higher risk of ischemic stroke if they are not on other antihypertensive medications, according to new research in the Canadian Medical Association Journal. Read more.