In older age groups, men are affected more often and the disease is often misdiagnosed. Triggers include medications such as antibiotics, beta-blockers, and statins.
Among the most frequently prescribed medications, PPIs are associated with an increased risk of fracture, Clostridium difficile infection, community-acquired pneumonia, and vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
A prior history of anxiety, depression, and physical and psychological trauma is significantly predictive of onset of chronic pain in later life. The risk of central sensitization should not be underestimated.
Beta-blockade is one of the toxic systemic effects of ophthalmic timolol found to be stronger and longer- lasting in the elderly.
In the elderly, pharmacodynamic changes can potentially decrease efficacy and increase toxicity of cytotoxic treatments.