US Pharm. 2009;34(2):8. 

The National Heart Lung and Blood Institute estimated that, in 2008, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke incurred $449 billion in direct and indirect costs. In 2005, CVD affected 459 million women and 410 million men in this country.

Myocardial Infarction (MI): In 2005, MI affected 8 million people (3.7% of the population), comprising 2.5% (3 million) of women, and 5% (5 million) of men. Affected were 3.3% of black women, 2.5% of white women, and 2.1% of Mexican-American women. Among men, 5.4% of whites, 3.9% of blacks, and 3.1% of Mexican-Americans suffered from MI. From ages 55-64 to 85-94, the prevalence of MI increased with age in men and women. Rates lagged in women by about 20 years. MI prevalence (age ≥70) was higher in men than in women overall. Prevalence of MI doubled between ages 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 for all groups. 

Angina Pectoris (AP): In 2005, 9.1 million people (4.1% of the population) suffered from AP, comprising 3.9% (4.6 million) of women and 4.4% (4.4 million) of men. AP occurred in 4.3% of black women, 3.9% of white women, and 3.3% of Mexican-American women. Episodes of AP occurred in 4.8% of white men, 3.4% of black men, and 2.3% of Mexican-American men. Prevalence of AP (ages 45-64) was higher in women than in men overall. AP prevalence (age ≥70) was higher in white men than in white women. 

Heart Failure (HF): The estimated direct and indirect cost of HF in 2008 was $34.8 billion. The 2005 prevalence of HF in people aged 20 and older was 5.3 million (2.7 million males, 2.6 million females). In 2005, HF occurred in 2.5% (5.3 million) of the population. This number included 2.8% (2.7 million) of total men, 2.8% of white men, 2.7% of black men, and 2.1% of Mexican-American men. Also included were 2.2% (2.7 million) of total women, 2.1% of white women, 3.3% of black women, and 1.9% of Mexican-American women. The increased prevalence of HF in men and women was greater between ages 65-74 and 75-84 than between ages 75-84 and 85-94. 

Stroke: Among adults aged 20 and older, 5.8 million (2.6%) people suffered from stroke in 2005. Stroke sufferers comprised 2.8% (3.4 million) of women and 2.6% (2.3 million) of men. White women (2.7%) outnumbered white men (2.4%), but an equal percentage of black men and women reported having suffered from stroke. 

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